Friday, March 29, 2019
The Key Factors Contributing To An Effective Destination Marketing Essay
The Key Factors Contributing To An Effective Destination Marketing studyAccording to Blain 2001, before defining the pattern of last snitching, it was essential to narrow d confess stigmatization in its general term. Henceforth to provide a erupt insight of the traditional comment of a disfigurement a exposition by Aaker (1990) in Managing shuffle Equity was firstly dress. He defines nonice as a observe, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, mean to hear the skinnys and advantages of one portion outer or group of sellers and to score them from those of competitors. According to the traditional perspective, a strike off was solely agreed with the increase/service which would champion the overlap/service to be distinguished amongst others. Moreover, Kotler (2000) besides overlap the same viewpoint as he be deformity as the abduce associated with one or more than items in the product line, which is apply to identify the source of char acter of the item(s) (Kotler 2000, p. 396).In addition, as the word keeps evolving and becomes more ch eachenging, Blain (2001) in his comment of taint explained the difference amidst grade and logo instance. He argued that the logo design is the symbol or visual representation of the label, which includes grasp, single(a)ity and acquaintances of the perceived product. Creating a logo is one blusher diorama of stigmatisation but the stigmatisation of a product/service involves more than provided a logo as the fault name in addition is an heavy factor. Hence, twain the stigmatise and the logo atomic number 18 interdependent. in spite of appearance this view, Keller (2003a) states that, whenever a securities industryer bring forths a new name, logo, or symbol for a new product, he or she has created a brand (p. 3).However, Kapferer (1997) mentioned that the brand is a sign- in that respectfore external- whose conk is to disclose the hidden qualities of the p roduct which argon inaccessible to contact (p 28). Here, the perception of brand is enumerately different compared to preliminary re lookup. Kapferer coiffe very untold wildness on the identity that a brand name projects and which will come on help the product/service to distinguish itself from competition. Taking the framework of the global fast food industry namely McDonalds, Ghosh et al (2010) stated that there are certain economic evaluate propositions that the comp each advances to its customers to satisfy their needs. McDonalds offers hygienic environment, good ambience and great service. It fecal matter hence be considered that the hidden qualities as mentioned earlier by Kapferer here is the perception which people declare with regards to the ambience at Mc Donald. Henceforth, Kohli and Thakor (1997) suggest that, The ch onlyenge today is to create a sloshed and distinctive find out (p. 208).Initially, a brand was simply a name, it gradually became a represen tation of a product and now a brand not only represent a product or service alone but marketers s appliance to a fault brand a city, a state, a nation or even a bucolic. brand is also about creating awareness of a name and address. According to Upshaw (1995), it is useful to revaluation a amountmary of the terminologies of mark as it helps to understanding the unlike scathe of branding utilize in the branding of finishs. smear EquityThe sum up accumu deeplyd value or worth of a brand the indubitable and intangible assets that the brand contributes to its corporate parent, both financially and in price of selling leverage.Brand identityPart of the brands overall equity the total perception of a brand in the market attribute, driven mostly by its positioning and temper.Brand positioningWhat a brand stands for in the minds of customers and prospects, relational to its competition, in terms of benefits and harbingers.Brand constitutionThe outward face of a brand its tonal characteristics most closely associated with human traits.Brand forceThe core or distillation of the brand identity.Brand characterHaving to do with the internal constitution of the brand how it is seen in terms of integrity, honesty and trustworthiness.Brand soulRelated to the brand character, defined as the values and horny core of the brand.Brand cultureThe system of values that surrounds a brand, of cristal like the cultural aspects of a people or a country.Brand take careGenerally synonymous with either the brands strategic genius or its reputation as a totally. knock back 1 The basic terminologies of branding (Upshaw 1995)With these terminologies as a foundation, a commentary of finish branding butt be developed which will help to arouse a split overview of the touristry cultivation branding.DESTINATION stationINGDespite existence indeterminate about referring the branding concept to the touristry conclusion context (OShaughnessy OShaughnessy 2000) , that concept has only recently captured the interest of touristry finishing researchers and practitioners (Curtis 2001 Anholt 2002 Cai 2002 Morgan Pritchard 2002 Olins 2002). The whimsicality of branding in the tourism industry has only recently to come in the limelight and apparently became a debatable and examinable topic in the late 1990s harmonise to Pike (2002) and Tasci Kozak (2006). Ricardo (2009) also applyed the fact that although branding has been an old aged concept, the study of termination branding is a relatively new addition in the tourism research field. With reference to the definition of branding that Aaker (1991) derived from his research, he explained stopping point branding as a distinguishing name and/ or symbol (such as a logo, or trademark) intended to identify the finale and to differentiate it from competitive cultivations. (p.7). Here also, the researcher put much vehemence on the name and symbol that would contribute to the personalization of the endpoint from competitors.However, any(prenominal) researchers do not limit their definition of branding to a primary name and symbol. According to Ritchie and Crouch (2003), the last branding concept is also about feelings and emotional attachment that the visitant would come when visiting the termination. Within this perspective, they proposed the following definition A speech brand is a name, symbol, logo trademark or other graphic that both identifies and differentiates the end point furthermore, it conveys the promise of a unfor leadtable travel experience that is uniquely associated with the coating. It also serves to unify and reward the post- travel recollection of pleasurable memories of the computer address experience.Henceforth, a destination brand is far more complex than a product brand. The destination brand must(prenominal) birth two attributes to be efficient compared to the brand of a product/service. Firstly, it is necessary to differentiate i tself from other destinations as put forward by Aaker (1991), and secondly people visiting the destination should also experience the promise associated with the brand message. The marketer must make certainly to deliver the experience promised. Taking the example of Columbia, the brand associated is The only stake of infection is wanting to stay. According to Buncle (2009), when a sightseer visits Columbia, he should want to protracted his visit, only then the marketer could take away the delight of a happy destination brand. Additionally, Cai (2002) defined destination branding from a much standardised perspective. He described destination brand as perceptions about a place as reflected by the associations held in tourist memory (Cai 2002, p. 273). His definition reflects that of Ritchie and Crouch (2003) as both consider destination brands as an essence, a perception that tourists have when visiting a destination. However, Kerr (2006) considered the concept of competiti veness, the promise of a memorable travel experience and the recollection of pleasurable memories to derive his give birth definition. To summarize the concept of destination branding, De Chernatony McDonald (1992) commented that the concept of branding is increasingly being applied to people and places.Furthermore, Kotler et al (1999) argue that the concept of a brand name extends to tourist destinations. Acapulco, Palm Springs and the French Riviera have developed strong reputations, consumer perceptions and expectations. In similar ways, Virginia builds on Birthplace of Presidents, Mississippi on The subject matter of Dixie, Niagara Falls is Romance, Greece is The Birthplace of Democracy and Florence The centre of the Renaissance. According to Kotler et al (1993), the concept of destination branding is linked to the specific attraction that the destination has to offer and is a platform for building a places picture show.Finally, the most comprehensive definition of destinati on branding to date was proposed by Blain et al (2005, p. 337), which includes both add up and demand perspectives Destination branding is the set of selling activities that(1) support the cosmea of a name, symbol, logo, word mark or other graphic that quickly identifies and differentiates a destination that(2) consistently convey the expectation of a memorable travel experience that is uniquely associated with the destination that(3) serve to consolidate and reinforce the emotional connection amongst the visitor and the destination and that(4) reduce consumer search costs and perceived risk.Collectively, these activities can help a destination have a positive influence on the visitor while the last mentioned makes his choice of destination. The definition proposed by Blain et al (2005) covers all the needs and wants a traveler would want to have for his trip. To summarize, defining destination branding is a complex process as it is not only the market of a destination but al so the sense of promise that the marketer would associate with the brand to all the potential visitors. It also encompasses the satisfaction the visitors would derive when experiencing the destination. region BRAND VERSUS DESTINATION BRANDNot much research has been through till now to differentiate between a country brand and a destination brand. However according to Szondi (2007), the aim of destination branding is to attract visitors and boost tourism, while country branding promotes economic, commercial and political interests at home and abroad. Szondi (2007) further suggest that a country brand can consist of different brands, such as a destination brand, an export brand, an investment brand, a political brand, which can be all different rather than having a central, all-encompassing country brand. Some of these sub-brands can be stronger and more achieverful than others. He further argues that country brands have both intangible and tangible elements, such as the products or work of the concomitant country. The more specific aims of country branding are to create or advance the country-of-origin effect, to promote exports or attract investors or a skilled workforce. Country brands can serve as a mixed bag of umbrella under which further sub-brands can be developed.Taking the event of Mauritius as example, it can be noted that its country brand is Mauritius- its a pleasure whilst its tourism brand is Les Iles Vanilles, on technological grounds, Mauritius has branded itself as Cyber- Mauritius and ecologically, the island has been termed as Maurice- Ile durable. Sub- brands are very important for a destination as it helps both investors and travelers to have an overview on the political, economical, social, technological, ecological and legal aspect of the destination. other concrete example which shows an evidence of the difference is the case of India. The country brand of India is Incredible India, but several destinations of the country itself are branded separately. Table 2 clearly shows the difference between the country brand and the destination brand.Country brandDestination brandsTable 2 Difference between a country brand and a destination brandREASONS DESTINATIONS amplify BRANDSResearch has proved that branding improve destination jut among visitors and help Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs), who are the stakeholders of the tourism industry of a destination, in measuring the success of that branding concept. Branding successes include the Courtyard by Marriott (Alford 1998), Forte Hotels (Connell 1994), and Florida (American Marketing Association 1997). In addition, the 1998 Annual Travel and touristry Research Association conference has reported a number of destination branding success stories. These included sassy York, Tasmania, Australia, Canada, New Orleans, Lousiana, Texas, and Oregon. The branding success in the hospitality firms (Beirne 1999 Higley 1999 Hodge 1998 Salomon 1998) has also been recogn ized. Also, from a nation branding perspective, Hamilton (2000) viewed Scotland as uniquely strong in integrity, inventiveness, tenacity, and spirit. Henceforth, it can be think that all the studies stress the importance of reinforcing a unique foresee and nature as well as differentiating the destination from competitors to be successful and to be a recognized destination and nation around the world.Additionally, according to Rainisto (2004), a successful brand is a key national asset that is why either nation brands itself. In other words, branding is considered as a marketing tool to promote a destination and in the process of maturation a successful brand the place itself is developed. Brown et al (2002) took the example of Australia and the Sydney 2000 Olympics to describe such a development. Branding Australia as a whole has changed the perspectives of many. With the Sydney Olympic game, other countries and even the local population viewed Australia differently as the tar geted group was satisfied with the Sydney Olympic and Australia brand image was boosted. To summarize, destinations develop brands to be economically stable and develop as well as accomplishment existing resources for the benefit of the destination itself.Moreover, destinations develop brands so that they can sell themselves by citing only category benefits. For example, several tropical destinations mostly islands like Jamaica, The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Mexico and the Cayman Islands praise their clear blue water and whiteness or pink or black sandy beaches to attract maximal number of tourists1. They sell fun, excitement or relaxation or the various activities that their destination offers with an added value of local culture which will outsmart the destination when compared to others as each destination has its own culture. Thus, it can be concluded that destinations develop brands to achieve fame and success by selling themselves to potential visitors.1 http//www.stealingshare.com/pages/%20Destination%20Brand%20Development%20and%20Tourism%20Brand.htmDESTINATION IMAGEThe aim of destination branding is to put emphasis on the importance of a tourism brand and present the targeted market a loving image of the mentioned brand according to Jalilvand et al (2010). It can therefore be understood that the image of a destination holds much importance and is considered as one of the key success factor brand. Moreover, Lin et al (2007) also agrees with the fact that destination image plays an important role in shaping tourists preferences and decisions to visit a particular destination. Henceforth, according to Morgan and Pritchard (1998), There is undoubtedly current interest in image. Image is exhorted as the defining experience of the decade, as the new reality. It is commonly recognized that destination image is, the sum of beliefs, ideas, and delineations that a person has of a destination (Crompton 1979, p. 18), it is also an importan t aspect in successful destination marketing (Tasci Gartner 2007). Some researchers relate destination image as one of the key component for the overall success of a destination in the field of tourism (Chen and Kerstetter 1999 Dadgostar and Isotalo 1992 Hunt 1975). Additionally, according to Echtner and Ritchie (1991), destination image is defined as not only the perceptions of individual destination attributes but also the holistic impression made by the destination (p. 8). Therefore destination image has proved to be a major factor in determining visitor choice (Lee, OLeary, and Hong 2002).The 3- pass tourism destination image formation modelMoreover, as destination image has a great impact on the tourist behavior, researchers has been toilsome to identify the determinants that define, modify, and strengthen this concept (Tasci Gartner 2007). Therefore, past studies have considered destination image as a dependent variable suggesting that several factors play a role in the de stination image formation (Alhemoud and Armstrong 1996 Bramwell and Rawding 1996 Gartner and Shen 1992 Gunn 1972 MacKay and Fesenmaier 1997 MacKay and Fesenmaier 2000 Smith and MacKay 2001 Sonmez, Apostolopoulos, and Tarlow 1999). inscribe 1 below illustrates the destination image formation model and subsequently identifies those elements that have a unionise influence on how the perceived destination image is formulated in the mind of the visitor. According to the diagram, there are three main types of destination image namely the cognitive, affective and the conative image that bridges the gap for a successful and impressive destination image formation which will eventually lead to a successful destination brand.FIGURE 1THE 3-GAP TOURISM DESTINATION IMAGE FORMATION pretendingFigure 1 fit from Govers et al- 2007Assurance of QualityAccording to Blain et al (2005) a recognized brand is an assurance for consumers who would generally derive satisfaction from that brand and trust that their expectations will be met. Viewed at heart a hospitality context, visitors will likely expect high-quality facilities and customer service at a renowned internationally recognized chain (brand) of hotels like the Oberoi Hotel Group as they are already acquainted with the service being provided by that particular firm. At the same time, visitors can also expect to pay a premium for this assurance of quality and reduction of perceived risk (Blain et al 2005). L. Berry (2000) states that a brand reduces customers perceived monetary, social, or safety risk in buying services, which are difficult to evaluate prior to grease ones palms (p. 128). Henceforth, the image that a destination projects in the tourism market and its product offering as illustrated in the diagram above is primordial.DESTINATION AND BRAND personalityFurthermore, one of the other key factors for an sound destination brand is the personality of the destination. As places seek to become distinctive and uni que in their own ways, destination personality is viewed as a possible bureau for understanding tourists perceptions of places and for designing a unique destination identity (Caprara et al 2001 Crask and Henry 1990 Morgan et al 2002, Triplett 1994). As we have seen in Table 1 above, Upshaw (1995) defined brand personality as human traits associated with the destination. Taking Dubai as an example, it is portrayed as a friendly, safe and virtually crime- free country and where hospitality has been a tradition for centuries2.2http//www.dubaitourism.ae/DubaiataGlance/WelcometoDubai/tabid/309/language/en US/Default.aspxBRAND PERSONALITYIn the tourism literature, the study of destination image has been of utmost importance during the past three decades, but destination personality has remained largely unexplored. However, since Aaker (1997) developed the Brand genius Scale (BPS), which consists of five generic wine dimensions namely excitement, sincerity, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness, further studies on destination personality has been conducted and the brand personality dimensions have been applied to various destinations across different cultures to have a better overview on consumers opinion on that particular area and how it is being consumed by visitors (Aaker et al 2001 Supphellen and Grnhaug 2003). The brand personality of a destination must have the ability to provide a sense of uniqueness in the minds of the consumers which will in turn help to build and enhance brand equity (Keller 1993 Johnson et al 2000 Phau and Lau 2000). If a brand has a strong personality, consumers would be influenced (Sirgy 1982 Malhotra 1988) and would tend to develop stronger emotional ties (Biel 1993), trust, and loyalty with the brand (Fournier 1998).DESTINATION PERSONALITYSimilarly to brand personality, a unique and emotionally hypnotic destination personality can influence the perceived image of a place and influence the choice of the tourist. For example, According to Crockett and Wood (2002), the rebranding of Western Australia has reflected another personality of the country. The destination was promoted as a premier nature-based tourism destination which in turn resulted in an increase in tourism. Although there has been little experimental investigations, destination personality has been adopted by many tourism academics at the conceptual level (Crockett and Wood 2002 Henderson 2000 Morgan et al 2002).For example, through an analysis through in a travel and tourism advertisement in the US travel media, Santos (2004) revealed that Portugal was represented with personality attributes such as contemporary, modern, sophisticated, and traditional. Morgan and Prichard (2002) observed that England was portrayed as being conservative, pleasant, refined, civilized, eccentric, and down to earth in the UK tourism media. Furthermore, Henderson (2000) revealed that the New Asia-Singapore brand composed of six personality characteristics nam ely cosmopolitan, youthful, vibrant, modern, reliability, and comfort. Moreover, destinations can be described using human personality traits, such as europium is traditional and sophisticated Wales is honest, welcoming, romantic, and down to earth Spain is friendly and family oriented capital of the United Kingdom is open-minded, unorthodox, vibrant, and creative and Paris is romantic (Morgan and Pritchard 2002).When choosing among competing products, consumers assess the degree of similarity between the personality traits communicated by the product (Plummer 1985) and by so doing they reflect their own personality (Zinkhan et al 1996). Hence, a sportsman buying an energy crispen like Red Bull will give the latter the impression that when consuming the drink, it would help him to be as strong as a bull. Therefore, there is both a physical and emotional consumption of the product. This notion is supported by Browns study (1992), which advocates that through tourism experience, the re are symbolic as well as physical consumption of places. In contrast, whether the tourists have had a direct or indirect contact with the destination, perceptions of destination personality traits can be outlined (Plummer 1985). Destination send a variety of messages, most especially through advertising and tourists would receive and empathise those messages and form a personal opinion on the behavior of the destination. Personality traits can be associated with a destination in a direct way through citizens of the country, hotel employees, restaurants, and tourist attractions, or simply through the tourists imagery, defined as the set of human characteristics associated with the typical visitor of a destination (Aaker 1997). In an indirect manner, personality traits can be attributed to destinations through marketing programs such as cooperative advertising, value pricing, celebrities of the country, and media construction of destinations (Cai 2002).Accordingly, Ekinci and Hosan y (2006) argued that, similar to consumer goods/brands, tourism destinations are rich in terms of symbolic values and personality traits, given that they consist of a bundle of tangible and intangible components (e.g., visitor attractions, hotels, and people) associated with particular values, histories, events, and feelings. Henceforth, it can be perceived as one of the key factors which contribute to an good tourism destination brand.DESTINATION POSITIONING some other key aspect of an effective and successful destination brand is the positioning of the destination. In their classic book, Positioning The Battle for Your Mind, Ries and Trout (1981) argued that the concept of positioning is not only applicable to a brand but also to a company, service, person, or even a place.A great number of researches have been conducted in the area of destination image and positioning (Gartner, 1989 Woodside et al., 1989 Woodside, 1990 Etchner and Ritchie, 1993 Chacko, 1997 Walmsley and Young, 1 998 Botha et al., 1999). Most of the previous studies have followed the traditional approach to positioning that is based on image creation using a number of attributes that reflect the destinations most attractive products. Moreover, Etchner and Ritchie (1993) also believe that the image of a destination should be seen as having components that are attribute-based and holistic. They argued that an analysis of these attributes, integrated with personal variables such as the type of tourism needs sought, can help in identifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of the destination and can also contribute to identifying potential niche markets that could be used in developing the destinations positioning strategy. Buhalis (2000) also suggests, based on Butlers (1980) destination life-cycle model as shown in Figure 2, that destinations at the later order of their evolutionary development, that is the rejuvenation point, should focus on alternative marketing strategies that suppor t the image alteration, redesign or re-positioning of the tourism product.Figure 2 Adapted from Butler (1980)According to the figure above, the following representsA Exploration phaseB Involvement phaseC Development phaseD Consolidation phaseE Stagnation phaseF worsening/ Rejuvenation phaseAccording to Butler (1980), each stage contributed to the enlargement of tourism in the destination. However, the last phase namely decline/ rejuvenation phase recommend a repositioning and rebranding of the destination to boost the tourism level of the destination. Moreover, Trout and Rivkin (1996) believe that repositioning strategy becomes necessary when(1) Customer attitudes have changed(2) Technology has overtaken existing products and/or(3) Products have strayed from the customers long-standing perception of them.Furthermore, Crompton et al (1992) also suggested that, for effective positioning of a destination, the strong attributes that are perceived as important by visitors should be fir st identified. Also to be identified are other relevant attributes that are unique to the destination and resourceful of differentiating it effectively from its competitors in its ability to satisfy the customers needs. Consistent with this line of thought, Chacko (1997) in a study of the US tourism market combined the ten highest-ranked activities among Japanese tourists with their specific image attributes of the destination in order to get an indication of how to position the USA as a destination for Japanese visitors. Henceforth, the positioning of a destination is the process of establishing a distinctive place of that destination in the minds of potential visitors (Gartner, 1989).From the above, it can be concluded that to see success for the positioning strategy of a destination, it is imperative that the image of the destination and the specific product attributes that satisfy the customer should be identified. Authors such as Gunter and Furnham (1992), Sleight (1993) and Weinstein (1994) believe that markets are no longer as mass-oriented or colossal as they once were due to a change in visitors tastes and needs. Most tourists are in need for unique and unspoiled destinations. Therefore, as explained by Etchner Richie (1993), the measurement of the customers image of the tourism product and the satisfaction of the product attributes, combined with the identification of the tourist needs and desires in a tourist destination (Cho, 1998), can be perceived as factors leading to an effective destination positioning.BRAND EQUITYApart from destination image, destination personality, destination positioning, another factor which can be considered as important for an effective brand is brand equity. Recently, much emphasis has been put in the tourism literature to the concept of brand equity (Ind 1997 Kapferer 1998 de Chernatony 1999 Aaker Joachimsthaler 2000). The Marketing Science contribute (1989) described brand equity in the perspective of customers as the value that is added by the name and rewarded in the market with better profit margins or market shares. It can be viewed by customers and channel members as both a financial asset and as a set of favorable associations and behaviors. Keller (2002) also defines brand equity from a customers perspective. He explained that an identifiable brand would urge customers to respond favorably to the product.On the other hand, from a managerial perspective, Aaker (1991) defined brand equity as a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol add to or figure from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firms customers. He stated that the assets and liabilities linked to a brands name or symbol can be grouped into five dimensions namely brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, and other proprietary brand assets. He suggested that brand equity can be generated by fortify those dimensions.Besides, Fairclot h (2001) stated that recent definitions of brand equity have evolved and include the added value of name and expand to a broad set of attributes that drives customer choice. He also argued that brand equity actually represents a products position in the minds of consumers in the marketplace. Nevertheless, researches on the brand equity concept and its dimensions have been mostly investigated within products and services context the brand equity concept within a tourism destination context is currently in its infancy (Konecnick Gartner, 2007 Pike, 2007).CONCLUSIONBranding has evolved from product brand to destination brand. However, destination branding is far more complex than branding itself. There are quatern key factors in the literature review that have been developed. These are destination image, destination personality, destination positioning and finally brand equity. Yet, destination image is still considered as one of the most important aspect for an effective brand. Mor eover, the 3-gap tourism destination image formation model is an integral tool for marketers have a better insight of the loopholes that should be tackled when promoting a place. Henceforth, whenever any DMO want to create an effective brand, the four key brands must be given due priority.