Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Franzosenbusch Heritage Project Essay

Literature plays an important role in enlightening individuals regarding the situation of their society. These written works substantially help an individual to know more about his or her history. This function of literary works is very essential because knowing an individual’s history will serve as a basis for him or her to understand the present and plans things for the future. In relation to this, literary works is also a form of expression. This is an outlet or a channel for authors to voice out their opinion about things and even reveals their own personal feelings. In doing so, these authors are given the opportunity to make a commentary about the society during the particular time that they lived and even analyzed past events and make their predictions about the future. Nevertheless, the most vital contribution that these literary works has is the way which they could inform the readers of different things and events that happened, are happening, and will likely to happen. In relation to these, there are indeed notable authors that have tremendously contributed in enlightening the general public about important subjects and pressing issues that are taking place in the society. More so, it is indeed very admirable especially for some authors who were able to capture the concerns during their time but was able to write it in a way that transcends the boundary of time. These kinds of literary pieces can be regarded as something that is still applicable during the present time because the issues that they tackled, as well as the lessons obtained from it, are still very helpful in addressing the problems of today. Being the case, it can be said that American poets and authors have played an important role in contributing to the society. It is the main objective of this paper to discuss the importance of authors and poets specifically during the mid-1800s. In doing so, the succeeding paragraphs will elaborate on the life and works of Laura Ingalls Wilder, an example of a notable author that indeed tremendously contributed to the development of literature during her time. Moreover, the paper will also analyze the way she was able to share something to her readers that they might have not known without her works. It will highlight the most dominant information or lesson that she has imparted and how these affected the lives of other people. Moreover, an analysis will also be done regarding her importance during her lifetime and the present time, as well as how her works will be perceived in the near future. The United States of America during the Mid-1800s During the mid-1800s, the United States of America experienced numerous challenges especially with the geographic expansion of the country. The United States during this time was expanding especially with the inclusion of Texas and the other territories that were obtained because of the war that they had with Mexico. Because of these, many settlers rushed through the west in order to escape the conflict that was taking place. Furthermore, slavery was still a continuing source of controversy that attributed to the domestic division of the country. The annexation of Texas and other territories because of the war with Mexico is largely attributed to a neatly expressed vision that even sounded like a religious mission. The main driving force of the Americans in expanding their territory is due to the Manifest Destiny. This is a belief of the Americans that they are destined and divinely ordained by God to expand their territories in North America. However, not all people agreed or supported this mission that the people from United States believed that they have. This disagreement had been most observable with the citizens of the territories that they annexed, as well as other people that were disadvantageously affected by the conflict in the acquisition of these territories. Nevertheless, the most controversial issue that the Americans have to deal with was slavery. African Americans experienced discrimination and inhumane treatment during this time; they were regarded as mere commodities or objects that were used for production. This was quite observable through the Fugitive Slave Act. The United States Congress passed this law in 1850 which stipulated that runaway slaves should be returned to their masters. This was regarded as the most controversial act that was implemented by the American government during that time. As such, it further heightened the division against the Northern and Southern states of the country. In connection to this, some Americans also perceived this act as a way that could further strengthen the power of the slaveholding south. It is important that the situation during the mid-1800s is given due consideration because this can serve as a guide in order to understand the frame of thinking of the people during this time. In relation to this, this will also aid in determining whether the American authors were able to give due attention to the pressing issues at that specific period. Moreover, this will be used as a basis on how they were able to help address the situation through the written works that they have done. Contribution of American Authors in the Mid-1800s The American authors have played an important part in emphasizing the problems of the American society during the mid-1800s. It is because of their written works that they were able to open the eyes of most of the American citizens, as well as other people in the world. This could be exemplified by the famous work of Harriet Beecher Stowe entitled â€Å"Uncle Tom’s Cabin. † This novel was able to give due emphasis to the situation of the African American slaves especially in the southern part of the United States. Stowe was able to provide vivid images of the inequality and inhumane treatments that the African American slaves experienced through the way that she narrated the events and of her story and the feelings of the characters that she created. This novel was deeply affecting as it moves its readers to realize the ill-fated lives of these slaves. It is through Stowe’s novel that she paved the way for other people to feel a sense of empathy by putting themselves in the place of these slaves. In connection to these, Laura Ingalls Wilder is also among the most notable writers that contributed to the awareness of the public regarding the male unrest and female patience of pioneers in the mid-1800s. She also focused on the peculiar American spirit and sense of independence that Americans have during that time. One of the unique characteristics of this author is the fact that she was able to make her stories known to young people because she specializes in making children books. She also used her childhood experiences in order to make her stories mirror the real situation of the society during her younger days. By doing so, she was able to influence and touch the lives of other people especially in fostering good values to children. The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder To be able to clearly understand the motivation of Laura Ingalls Wilder that aided her in making remarkable literary pieces, it is essential that the story of her life is given due consideration. Laura Ingalls Wilder was born on February 7, 1867 in Wisconsin. She was the second of the five children of Charles Philip Ingalls and Caroline Lake. During her growing years, she and her family constantly moved throughout the mid-west. Wilder was a bright child but she was not given the chance to receive quality education because of the isolated places that their family usually went to. She also had to deal with their financial problems wherein sometimes she had to stop school in order to earn money. Nevertheless, they eventually stayed in De Smet, Dakota Territory. This is where she attended school on a regular basis and she even worked as a seamstress and teacher. Afterwards, she married a homesteader by the name of Almanzo James Wilder. She had two children with him, the popular novelist, journalist and political theorist Rose Wilder Lane and a son who died immediately after birth. Laura Ingalls Wilder was able to live the real life of American pioneers because they had to survive by using only the small amount of resources that they earned together with their knowledge and experience. Because of this, they learned how to grow and hunt for foods, as well as build their house and other tools that they need. Laura Ingalls Wilder experienced how it is to grow up in the frontier during the late 1800s. This life experience that she had motivated her to write a historical fiction series for children called the â€Å"Little House. † The series of books that she created were published during the 1930’s. Her written works were able to boost her popularity as she was regarded as a renowned writer during her time; and even up to the present time, her books are still popular and never got out of print. Wilder has an exceptional writing skills that captures the interests of both children and adults. Throughout the years, this author has been able to narrate important and interesting subjects that dealt with her experiences as a frontier girl. Some of the situations that she described involve â€Å"wonderful and heartbreaking times, the poverty and the plenty, the western trails and homesteading issues, and the simple ways of life of an ordinary family who showed great love and tenacity during their years together in the American prairie. † Even though the books that Wilder wrote are considered as fictional, she was able to give true accounts of what it was like to live and survive on the frontier during that period in America. The stories that she created were also characterized by its appeal to all ages, as her books are applicable to all people who want a simple story about a loving family as well as those that are interested by the pioneer times. Written Works of Laura Ingalls Wilder Knowing the basic and important information about the life of Laura Ingalls Wilder is not enough. It is also necessary that the some of the books that she wrote are analyzed in order to clearly see how she depicted her experiences as a frontier girl and the pioneer life that she lived. In doing so, a book that she wrote entitled â€Å"Little House on the Prairie† will be analyzed. The story unfolded with the decision of Pa Ingalls to sell their house in the Big Woods of Wisconsin and move to the Indian Territory that is near Independence, Kansas. Pa Ingalls decision was influenced by the stories that he heard about the land there, which would be opened to settlement by homesteaders. Wilder narrated the way they adopted to their new environment. Pa Ingalls was responsible in building their house wherein he made the roof and floor, as well as dig the well with his own bare hands. The other members of the family also learned to grow and hunt for their own food. On the latter part of the book, the family acquired a terrible disease, which were referred to as â€Å"Fever ‘n’ Ague† that is commonly known today as malaria. The family was able to recover through the help of their neighbor who took care of them. During the spring, the family started planting, which marked the beginnings of their small farm. However, at the last part of the book, the family was informed that they have to leave the land because settling there is illegal. Pa Ingalls decided to leave the land before the Army forces them to do so. The story that Laura Ingalls Wilder narrated in this children book is actually a reflection of the real life experiences that she had during her younger years. In this story, it is seen how the family risked their usual life in the Big Woods of Wisconsin in order to look for better opportunities in the Indian Territory. The process of establishing a new life in this new land aided the family to use their resourcefulness by building their own house. In relation to this, they also learned how to sustain their everyday needs through their own efforts. However, like in most situations when the family was already gaining grounds with their new environment, things started to go against them especially when the family got sick because of malaria. In connection to this, when they are already beginning to build their small farm another unfortunate event happened. They found out that they were illegal settlers in that land and they have to vacate the area or be forced to do so. The fate of the characters in this children book is not fictitious because it reflects the real situation of the American people during the mid-1800s, the same time as Wilder’s childhood days. The unfortunate situation that has befallen the family at the end of the story highlights the fate of people who are living in the frontiers especially during the time when territorial conflict and border disputes are very observable. The territorial expansion of the United States brought about this conflict in some areas of the country that adversely affected the people. Their situation is similar to that of the Ingalls family whose dream of starting their own farm was shattered. The discussions above clearly show that the American authors of the mid-1800s are important and Laura Ingalls Wilder is an evident proof of it. Wilder’s children books paved the way for the general public, especially the young ones, to be enlightened with the pioneer life of an American family as well as the hardships that is involved in being a frontier girl. Being the case, American authors like Laura Ingalls Wilder indeed, played an important role in informing the people about the status of the society. It is through her literary pieces like these that paved the way for people to realize and become aware of the social issues and concerns that plagued the society during that particular period. BIBLIOGRAPHY Miller, John E. Becoming Laura Ingalls Wilder. Missouri: University of Missouri, 1998. â€Å"What was America Like in the Mid-1880s? † Franzosenbusch Heritage Project, (2003). Database on-line. Available from, http://www. franzosenbuschheritageproject. org /Histories/US_Background /America%20in%20the%20mid-1800%27s. htm. Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House on the Prairie New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. , 1963.

Vehicle of Social Expression

Music is the most powerful vehicle of human expression. As the embodiment of love, disapproval, happiness, experience – life, music speaks to us, because it comes from us. Each people, in each paradine of the human experience instinctively and systematically change the music of the past to represent the realities of the present. In this century, black music, more specifically Soul music, has been that music that has brought to plain view that which evidences our humanity – hope, hurt, joy and passion – in such a way that the world has no other choice than to feel its power and marvel in its brilliance. When one discusses the relationship between Soul music and the civil rights movement, it becomes a dialouge very akin to that of the chicken and the egg. The period of â€Å"Classic Soul† is that period primarily, but not exclusively referenced as the 1950†³s, 60†³s and 70†³s (Stephenson 186). This is the time frame of the American Civil Rights Movement, and the impact of the massive changes going on, are reflected in the music and the culture. So one would be correct in both assuming that the Civil Rights Movement gave rise to Soul music, as much Soul music contributed to the success of the campaign for civil rights. Soul music during its heyday, did more than simply entertain. For a race of people it served as a source of motivation, strength and education, for a people immersed in turmoil and tragedy. The institution of segregation had effectively inhibited the general populace†s awareness of the great achievements and contributions made by African-americans throughout the history of the United States (Franklin 429). Inasmuch, Soul music sought to bring that undersight to light. Soul songs like Donny Hathaway†s â€Å"To Be Young, Gifted and Black,† was revolutionary, in that they sought to instill pride of one†s history, but at the same time motivate a new generation to reach new heights. As Hathaway says, â€Å"We must begin to tell our young, ‘Don†t you know that there is a whole world waiting for you? â€Å"†, he is calling for the teaching of black pride to the youth, which was a wide spread trend in black communities of the '60s and '70s (Hathaway). James Brown†s â€Å"Say It Loud, I†m Black and I†m Proud,† became an anthem for the movement (Brown). The song†s lyrics like, â€Å"†¦. Don†t quit moving, until we get what we deserve†¦ we†d rather die on our feet, than keep living on our knees,† were words of inspiration for those involved in the struggle for equality. â€Å"Whereas the predominant theme of rhythm and blues was love and other kind of human relationships, soul singers voiced concern about the social injustice, racial pride, black militancy, and forms of protest (Southern 517). Eileen Southern†s statement on Soul music greatly describes the type of works produced by Hathaway and Brown at the time, yet was definetly not exclusive to these two artists. The period wherein Soul intertwined with the Civil Rights Movement, produced music greatly influenced by the environment in which its creators lived. Donny Hathaway†s, â€Å"Ghetto,† and Marvin Gaye†s â€Å"Inner City Blues (Makes Me Wanna Holler),† speak of the harshness of life in the Inner City (Hathaway/Gaye). Societal ills and political unrest were a major theme of Soul music, and Marvin Gaye†s work, almost more than any other artist, was demonstrative of this fact. Gaye†s album What†s Goin On, was his commentary on the social problems of the period, and through its success tremendously impacted the increasing social awareness. Despair within the black community was given voice in Gaye†s â€Å"Inner City Blues†. Inflation, taxes, unemployment and police brutality were numbered among the themes addressed in the song. The sense of hopelesness of the piece can best be conveyed in the line saying, â€Å"this life ain†t worth the living†¦. makes me wanna holler, throw up both my hands! â€Å"(Gaye). â€Å"Save the Children† goes on to ask: â€Å"Who is willing to try and save a world that is destined to die? â€Å", yet goes on to say â€Å"live life for the children†¦ let†s save the children (Gaye). So, even in the midst of great despair, Gaye, and other artist of his genre, did believe in the possibility of change. â€Å"Ball of Confusion,† debuting in 1970, gave the Temptation's take on the societal ills plaguing their times. It explored the white migration to the suburbs, urban riots, politicians, etc. , as it expressed the sense of turmoil experienced during that time which seemed to all come together in a â€Å"Ball of Confusion. † The lyrics state that â€Å"the only person talking about love my brother is the preacher†¦ the only person interested in learning is the teacher†(Temptations). These lines express a theme of love and education as the cure to society's problems. In a deeper sense, it says that people should focus on solutions, not the problems which create despair. In the spirit of this solution-based songwriting, a strong, no-holds-barred message to youth about the importance of getting an education was given voice in October of 1966. James Brown's â€Å"Don't Be a Drop Out† is a story of a drop out who compares himself to friends who continued their education. The song says, â€Å"they kept on pushing when the going got tough, and now they know that things don't seem so rough†(Brown). James Brown knew the importance of this first hand having no formal education. He implemented a program which encouraged kids to stay in school and gave scholarships for those that wanted to go to college. Brown also worked to improve the quality of education in urban areas. He later releases two anti-drug songs, â€Å"King Heroin† and â€Å"Public Enemy No. 1. † He had realized the devastation that drugs brought to the black community and the songs were used as the tool to educate blacks about their danger. James had become a role model for black youth not only through his music but through his commitment to the black community, thus serving as a shining example of the lessons of his music. Brown's message of change by improving currently existing systems was conservative in comparison to some more radical artists. These artists, like the Last Poets, belived that change would only come around through a revolution. The Last Poets who use a combination of spoken word and music in their song â€Å"Niggers Are Scared of Revolution† exemplify this. The song addresses apathy in the black community about black revolution and the lack of participation in the movement (Last Poets). Gil Scott Heron is an artist with a similar message. His work â€Å"The Revolution Will Not Be Televised† discuss the media's purposeful ommitasnce of pertinent black issues, and the manner in which change will occur. The song â€Å"Power to the People† by the Chi-Lites was originally the slogan for the Black Panther Party. â€Å"Young, Gifted and Black† by Nina Simone, â€Å"People Get Ready† by the Impressions and Edwin Starr's â€Å"War† are just a few of the many songs which drew the black community together to raise social consciousness. Black music, specifically Soul music, will never diasppear. Though the motivation for the music may change nominally, the spirit behind it will always stay the same. Passion, pain, despair, love and hope, will forever remain key elements of the human experience. This truth is the reason in which we have seen Soul music change to fit the times in which it exists. Some hip-hop artists such as De La Soul, Public Enemy and even Arrested Development carried a strong message of social change. Yet, their time too was limited as the black American climate slightly changed. Today artist such as the crowned king and queen of the newly dubbed category of â€Å"Neo-classic soul† bear the torch. D'Angelo and Erykah Badu talk about revolution and the state of the black community and relationships. Badu's â€Å"On and On† expresses her thoughts of how she feels that we are born into the middle of a world in constant struggle as she says, â€Å"†¦. my life keeps going like a rollling stone†¦.. I was born under water with three dollars and six dimes (a metaphor to 360 degrees in reference to her never-ending struggle)†(Baduizm). D'Angelo addresses the rampant use of marijuana in his â€Å"Brown Sugar† as he writes, â€Å"I want some more of your brown sugar†¦. your love makes me high right to the sky†¦. my eyes are blood burgundy. † His Devil's Pie addresses drugs and money (Belly Soundtrack). Both Badu and D'Angelo give their takes on bad relationships in â€Å"Tyrone† and â€Å"Shit, Damn, Mother Fucker,† respectively. Badu's â€Å"Other Side of the Game† even addresses the issue of being involved with a man who sells drugs. She writes, â€Å"Do I really want my baby†¦.. work ain't honest, but it pays the bills. The subject matter addressed by Badu and D'Angelo express many of the problems endured by today's generation, some of which may not have been experienced in the same manner of generations past. Music is an expression of life. Hence, it can only be a reflection of life's experiences. Soul music speaks directly to the human experience. It attacks the maladies of our existence. It empathizes with our pains, and rejoices in our happiness. Masterfully, has it changed so as that it remains sensitive to our needs today. Only the beat has changed. The Soul of soul, however, the message, will always remain.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Out of This Furnace

Out of this Furnace, by Thomas Bell, tells the story of a multigenerational family of Slovakian immigrants. This family of five generations came to American in the late nineteenth century in search of a better life. One of the first to arrive, Djuro Kracha, arrived in the New World in the middle of the 1880s. The novel starts off telling of his voyage from the â€Å"old country† and the labor he performed to accumulate enough money for his walk to Pennsylvania. He ventured on his journey to Pennsylvania in the search for a job in the steel mills.The story also tells of his rejection by the mainstream community as a â€Å"hunkey,† and the lives of his daughter and grandson. Soon enough though, the family becomes somewhat acculturate and even â€Å"Americanized,† and they soon become to resent the treatments they suffer. Their slow rise to business ownership was quickly ended by a series of events; a summer of Djuro’s drinking habit, Djuro’s return to his work in the steel mills, Mary’s marriage to a worker in the mills, and Djuro’s grandson’s disagreements with unfair labor prices.These events eventually intertwine with America’s transformation of the 1880’s to the 1940’s. During the 1880’s to the 1940’s, a wave of Eastern European immigrants grew in America, triggered by growing industries and advancing technology. This soon led to the establishment of steel mills, other factories, and plants which reshaped the American labor force. The experiences of Djuro and Mike, Mary’s husband, reflect a level of hostility towards Europeans from â€Å"mainstream† Americans and earlier. Without a doubt, the Kracha’s were negatively affected by stereotypes and attributions.However, the men and women who desired citizenship in the New World, Bell suggested only desired it to improve their lives and the futures of their families. Bell does not portray any immigrants who fail to accept the necessity of hard work. Therefore, Djuro’s minor episode of drunkenness shouldn’t take away from the years of efficient and effective work he completed to achieve his â€Å"American dream. † Another point Bell seemed to make clear was that Mike’s idealism was a consequence of his own desire to participant in that dream.The novel is set at a time when most people believed that the diverse ethnic groups entering the United States actually had a damaging effect on culture. Dobie Dobrejcak wanted to improve working conditions, treatments, economic prospects, and the lives of working men. His beliefs of possible social transformation actually confirmed the American Dream and the willingness of people to chase their dreams, even against great odds. The majority of immigrant groups that traveled to America went in search of freedom and economic opportunity.These immigrants, in all actuality, made huge contributions to the growth of the cou ntry. Westward expansion was made possible for workers, even today; immigrants work jobs that might have otherwise gone begging. Thomas Bell even argues that the Jews, Catholics, the Irish and the Slavs were the ones that made America’s achievements and progresses possible. Bell uses Mike and Mary’s lives to reference the Americans’ want and demand for immigrants during expansion, and to express how out of favor immigrants were during America’s recessions.As the 1920s came around, recession and depression made immigrant workers unpopular and unnecessary. This novel tremendously expresses the lives of immigrants like the Kracha’s and Dobrejcak’s and explains their want to achieve parity and equality. In the book, however, the term â€Å"American† did not change. The thing that truly changed was the determination to work against forces trying to prevent the family from entering the mainstream society. To truly understand the â€Å"Amer ican Experience† an immigrant had to realize that it was not a classical experience.It is known that early colonists and new immigrants coming to the United States had the same dreams and values. To them, the New World represented land opportunity, freedom of religion, the ability to overcome an aristocratic Old World, and the freedom to develop one’s own wishes. The topic of immigration in America has always sparked massive controversy. Some people believed anyone had the right to move from country to country as they pleased. Others thought the immigrant population actually benefitted the country by facilitating economic growth, development, and prosperity.The Americans against immigration mainly focused on the differences of new cultural groups. Mostly though, the Native American party argued that the country was about to receive a threat due to the massive increase in the â€Å"body of residents of foreign birth, imbued with foreign feelings, and of ignorant and imm oral character who receive the elective franchise and the right of eligibility to political offices. † Others thought that new immigrants hurt American society because of their lack of education, their impoverishment, lack of skill and their Catholic and Jewish religions.Early opposition to specific immigrants was focused on any groups perceived as inferior to the Anglo-Saxon stock. Disagreements on immigration focused mainly on the immigrant’s lack of adaptability based on different ethnic groups. The views of non-immigrants were that; foreigners lower the intelligence, efficiency, and orderliness plane, they increased alcoholism, crime, and immorality, the barriers of speech, education, and religious faith cause divisions, and that immigrants add to the number of poor people, tend to be illiterate, and cause overpopulation.Early settlers of the United States were a mixture of whites, Anglo- Saxons, and immigrants. Every ethnic group that has come into the United State s has helped shape the American dream and shared that experience, rather happily or not. A major shaping of our economic system resulted from the influence of immigration that helped bring dramatic changes in our population census. The United States of America can mean a variety of different things to several different people.The core of the â€Å"American dream† is without a doubt, freedom and equality. However, this nation was founded on republican principles of justice for all, friendship with all nations, and alliances with none. Since then, these principles have undergone several changes. For example, today the United States has many â€Å"alliances† that influence its domestic and foreign policies. Nevertheless, â€Å"justice for all† remains intact and continuously attracts new immigrants each year, while trying to determine what really constitutes â€Å"justice and equality. †

Monday, July 29, 2019

Opera house public environment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Opera house public environment - Assignment Example We will invest 1000 million for each production. We will co-produce Andrea Chenier with Royal Opera House. We will share 30% production fee with Royal Opera House. The first performance will in Royal Opera House and will last one month. Then the scenery, lighting and crew will directly travel to our opera house. We will share 30% our ticket sales with Royal Opera House for every performance until meet their total 30% production costs. The last one is Carmen, it will provide a chance to students around Princeton area whose major is related opera to produce this production by themselves. We will offer our opera hall, all facilities and promotion to them but we don’t pay for director, cast. Also we will take 75% ticket sales. The reason why we opt these five productions is our opera festival aim to bring operas to younger age audience which means we will chose the most representative for every period and will include as much as features as that period meanwhile We’re not o nly to provide these shows but also have arrange of classes and activities to make opera get close to people. Our mission is to enable people to get enriched by operas which means we will do many things to let people who never watch operas feel associated with operas.According to the mission, the present goal is to attract more people.We have an agreement over that young people are more malleable so our specific goal is to attract young audience as much as possible.During the following part I will detailed analysis our target audience, here I want to emphasis that we have a clear goal of what kind of audience we’re going to focus.We do everything to make sure achieve the goal and also this goal will help us to check if we’re on the right path. Basically, when opera house plans to do the opera season, they will book conductor and principle cast first because for opera that high artistic value

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Decomposition Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Decomposition - Lab Report Example Nutrient is beef broth plus yeast. Beech (fagus): - belongs to the family fagaceae. Leaves are entirely or sparsely toothed, 5 - 15 cms long and 4- 10 cm broad. Rate of decomposition is faster due to low lignin content, which is a decay resistant. Decay of leaves can be estimated by the change in 1. Their mass 2. Quality (which is calculated as ratio of C: N of decayed dry material. 3. Their chemical content. 4. Changes in soil or water, which act as medium. 5. Linear wave equation Wt = Wo - Kt where Wt = mass observed after specific time period, Wo = initial weight, K = decay constant. PAGE 2PREDICTION Rate of decomposition will increase with increase in temperature and will be negligible at very high and very low temperatures. METHODAgar jelly and mini-petri dishes were used. The agar had no feed in it. It was only used as a Base to keep the leaf circles in place. The leaf circles would act as food for the microbes to Grow on. To test different temperatures 5C, 20C, 30C and 65C were used. In each dish 10 leafcircles were put . Each leaf circle had a diameter of 5mm. To make sure that thisexperiment was safe, the lid was cello taped and wasn't opened till the experiment was over .The leaf circles were then observed during a 4-week period. Any change in size of the leafMaterial could be measured.Graph paper was put behind each petri dish when optimal temperature for microbial activity is between 35 to 45 degree C. Agar: - it is a phycocolloid extracted from red purple marine algae, which belong to class rhodophyceae. Agar is a gel at room temperature and remains firm at as high as 65 degree C. Nutrient agar will grow the largest number of different types of microbes fungi and bacteria. Nutrient is beef broth plus yeast. Beech (fagus): - belongs to the family fagaceae. Leaves are entirely or sparsely toothed, 5 - 15 cms long and 4- 10 cm broad. Rate of decomposition is faster due to low lignin content, which is a decay resistant. Based on the results above it can be said that decomposition at extreme high and extreme low temperatures is zero and the decay process increases with increase in temperature as depicted in the temperature vs. mean diameter graph. There is minimal or no microbial activity at extreme temperatures. There fore the process of decay is slow at such temperatures. Decaying process tends to be faster at warmer temperatures as it facilitates microbial growth therefore as the temperature increases the decayi9ng process also increases. 7. NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS: Adequate numbers of observations were not made. Instead of increasing the number of dishes to 10, less number of dishes should have been used and observations made at more frequent temperatures so that optimal temperature could be calculated, 8.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Greek Island Crete Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Greek Island Crete - Essay Example The Islands contains rich folk traditions and cultural heritage despite economic growth, globalization and tourism. The famous dances are still conducted at every opportunity in most celebrations. Crete boasts of exceptional artistic phenomena such as poetry, embroidery, jewelry and Cretan music which are played with the violin, lyre and laouto (Duke, pg.89). The major diet consists of cuisine made of extra virgin olive oil, vegetables and legumes. The economic state of the island mainly depended on farming and stock breeding but has changed to incorporate tourism. Most of the agricultural goods produced include potatoes, grapes, oranges and olives. Other forms of industry active in the island include packaging and shipping industries as well as real estate. The region boasts of temperate climatic conditions with snow on the mountains thus making visits better in autumn and spring (Georgiou, pg.56). The flora is rich in herbs and pharmaceutical plants like thyme and labdanum and a variety of flowers like tulips and orchids. It also has varied fauna like wild goats, tree frogs and

Friday, July 26, 2019

What is evidence in your view How can one tell truthfulness from Research Paper

What is evidence in your view How can one tell truthfulness from falsehood Indeed what tools are at the disposal of a critical mind to uncover evidence and draw reasonable conclusions - Research Paper Example t claimed that evidence comprised of the stimulation of an individual’s sensory receptors while another great empiricist named Bertrand Russell states that evidence is sense information, the mental items of one’s consciousness. Additionally, it is also tied closely to the philosophy of science. Unquestionably, the term evidence is barely a philosopher’s word of art. Philosophers are not the only personalities who regularly speak of evidence, but also judges, lawyers, scientists, historians, and reporters speak of it often. Therefore, the notion of evidence is stronger on a pre-theoretical ground than several other notions that enjoy similar fundamental standings within philosophy. If one relates philosophical explanations of evidence with the manner the notion is often used in non-philosophical notions, a confusion comes up. For instance, if you see how the non-philosophers like the historians, forensic scientists, and archeologists, among others term evidence th eir perception is quite different from that of the philosophers. Therefore evidence is based on belief (Kelly, 15). Reality can have a more complicated and fluid explanation than we might understand. Rather than being a tangible ability to view black and white dissimilarities concerning ideas and establishing beliefs on external evidence, an individual’s idea of reality can accommodate opposing beliefs, reject, and disregard truth when suitable, or embrace ideas seemingly outrageous in a sane biosphere. A postmodern work of falsehood permits for the changing and shifting of reality, hence providing the audience an alternative reality to associate the alleged truth outside the work. According to Winston, the reality is something impartial, external, and existing in its particular right, the nature of truth is self-evident. However, Kant challenges Winston idea and states the idea of reality is all in the human mind. Kant illustrated a strong distinction concerning our perceptions of reality and the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Media literacy should be taught to boys ages 6-12 to understand the Essay

Media literacy should be taught to boys ages 6-12 to understand the dangers of professional wrestling - Essay Example Since there is no filter available that can discriminate what content suits what age bracket, therefore the impacts can be quite adverse. Media literacy education is very essential because it will help children to discriminate the content on their own and would eventually help them to choose what is feasible for them. The age bracket from six to twelve years is very fragile where a child adapts a lot thus it is very important to assist them and provide them with the basic knowledge so that they do not implement what they see. Thus it is very important to inculcate media literacy amongst young children so that they understand the adverse impacts of professional Wrestling."By its very nature, professional  wrestling promotes violence  as a reason to watch. With all the  brutality in this world  Zillmann and Bryant (1994) argued that audiences, especially  children, seek out arousing entertainment to relieve boredom." (Oppliger, 2004) Firstly professional wrestling has evolved tremendously since it has been given the criteria of a sport. This sport has another very important side to it, which is the entertainment factor it provides. When young children have access to wrestling they not only get enthralled by the entertainment factor but also the stunts done leave a very profound impact on their mind. They develop this wrong approach that they can practice the same stunts at home, school or other places. They do not realize that the stunts performed there are under strict supervision and are a result of intense practice. Without any supervision or practice the young children involve in wrestling activities which can result in serious injuries and damage to health. When children are not educated about the adverse impacts associated with wrestling they will not only damage themselves but others as well. Furthermore it needs to be realized here that children adapt whatever they see. Hence it is very important to educate them about wrestling so that they do n ot implement what they see. Secondly another issue that can arise if young children have access to professional wrestling is that they learn to use abusive language. "any greater degree of violence than is occasioned by blows,  wrestling, and pulling of the hair; and their  abusive language." (Rees, 1905) These matches it has been observed that the wrestlers tend to use such abusive terms which are not suitable for the young minds. Many a times it has been seen that children use the language they learn from these wrestling at home; school etc. and when they are asked from where they learned such language they usually blame wrestling. Children who are belonging to the age bracket of six to ten are at a stage of developing. Their reflexes are becoming sharper and their cognition is developing. During this phase if they start to learn such abusive language that will always have a very drastic impact on their overall upbringing. These words are then used at various instances reflect ing their learning from these wrestling programs. Language is very important when it comes to young children and if they do continue to watch such programs which promote abusive language then the impacts can be quite adverse. Thirdly another major danger that can damage the young minds is the propagation of vulgarity, profanity and female adolescence.These shows have become an emblem of vulgarity. Young children

Business research week 3 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Business research week 3 - Assignment Example paper would confirm that the organizational innovation that would favor the development of technological innovation capabilities that both of the services including the technological and organizational capabilities meant for the processes and products can lead to some superior performance of a firm (Camisà ³n & Villar-Là ³pez, 2014). The research was financially supported by the research funding especially from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. It also gained some funding from the Conselleria de Education in the coast of Generalitat Valenciana. The paper aimed at progressive examination of the firm in question based on the information technology employed within the firm. The two channels of the innovation help in the application of the major themes and try to explain the interrelationship between the two major factors used in the firm. The paper utilized a case study that had multiple methods and then ended up studying the activities related to the innovation process in the firm. It is quite apparent that different aspects of the IT capability to indeed affect an organization’s ability to influence and innovate several processes in the firm (Camisà ³n & Villar-Là ³pez, 2014). It has done this by identifying the exact areas to be studied and offering further recommendation to be carried out in the whole process. This article seeks to underscore the issues linked to the significance of IT in the business setup. IT is the enabler of innovation in most organizations or firms. Most leaders in the innovation sector tend to offer very distinct and separate perspectives employed in the overall use of technology and communication in the final end. Most of the leaders have been battling with the IT organizations in their fixation and the automating services in the entire system of the firm. IT can be seen as the anathema to the act of creativity and the barrier to some form of innovation in the firm (Atashi & Abdolpour, 2012). The paper mainly aims at the

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Wo'men and society Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Wo'men and society - Assignment Example Women working in chicken processing, computer manufacturing, and housecleaning and manicuring have the tendency of poor health and giving birth to unhealthy children. The debate arises on why contamination affects women more. The simple answer to this women and children has low birth weight and weak immunity due to which they suffer more. One protective mechanism for infants is access to breastfeeding. Environmentalists argue that the current civil rights are not protective of people’s health because they ask for evidence against environmental hazards. Women have always had the upper hand in the food department either in the households or the in the kitchens of restaurants. Studies also show that low income neighborhoods have more fast food joints and supermarkets which do not sell healthy food. The increasing population of the world calls for more food production. The number of farming systems that are biodiverse, enhance pest control, increase pollination and reduce risks of global warming should be increased. Women play a vital role in the establishment of such farms. There is no decreased amount of food in the world, but the political instability has caused the pseudo shortage of food. Increment in population is also an issue the world faces. Population changes are directly proportional to climate changes, immigration issues and issues of security. Population issues can be assessed by ecological foot printing, which shows the amount of energy, land, water and resources is consumed by country. This is a productive tool which assesses consumption changes. Current studies show that there is an increase in the access to uncontaminated water. Clean water serves as source of strength among countries. The surface of earth is covered with water but in the form of glaciers and salt-water. Americans have favored bottled water over tap water, but the making of bottled water consumes large quantities of oil and plastic. Companies such as Pepsi and Coca-Cola have been

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Visual Literacy in Teaching and Learning Research Paper

Visual Literacy in Teaching and Learning - Research Paper Example It refers to a group of vision competencies which human beings develop by seeing and integrating other sensory experiences at the same time. Apparently, the development of these competences is important to normal human learning. In this regard, when these competencies are developed, they enable people who are visually literate to discriminate and interpret visible actions, symbols, objects, whether or natural or man-made, that they encounter in their environment (Elkins, 2007). Through the creative use of these competencies, people are able to communicate with others effectively. Research has proved that the use of visuals in teaching enhance learning to a larger extent. Proper utilization of visuals results in a greater degree of learning. This paper examines the application of visual literacy in the teaching and learning process as a contemporary issue in visual literacy. Description of visual literacy in teaching and learning In the recent years, there has been a tremendous increa se in the use of visual elements in teaching and learning processes.... In addition, visuals such as graphics, images and other visual strategies used today are designed to increase learners’ comprehension of literary texts. Pictures, charts, maps and diagrams are among the common visual tools which are extensively used for effective learning. Through paintings, comic strips and creating collages, learners are able to demonstrate high levels of comprehension and are able to link visuals with texts (Bull & Anstey, 2006). Tattoos are also used to represent various literary characters. Proper care should always be taken when selecting an appropriate visual tool to use. However, preference should be given to color graphics in that black and white graphics are preferred. Film is also another effective form of visual aid used in teaching and learning. Visuals help students to focus and have full attention to the pictures and the accompanying words. Genesis of visual literacy in teaching and learning It is worth noting that although there has been increa sed integration of visual enhancement in the educational process in the recent years, the idea is not a new one. In this purview, the integration of visual and verbal information is evident throughout history. For instance, renowned educators and philosophers of ancient time clearly displayed appreciation for visual enhancements. Aristotle once noted that it is impossible to think without image (Bull & Anstey, 2006). A renowned ancient painter, Leonardo da Vinci, too, recognized the importance of visuals. He translated words from various aspects into drawings (Bull & Anstey, 2006) Also, alphabetical characters began as pictures that depicted various meanings. These symbols depicted man-made language devoid of distinctions between pictures and words. It is only

Monday, July 22, 2019

United States Military Recruiting Practices Essay Example for Free

United States Military Recruiting Practices Essay US military navy is the largest in the world with a tonne greater that the next 17 largest combined. US Navy is managed by Department of Navy administration which is a division of the Department of defense. The nine components to the operating forces of the US Navy include Atlantic Fleet, Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces, Central Command, Naval Forces Europe, Naval Network, Naval Special Warfare Command, Navy Reserve, Warfare Command, Operational Test and Evaluation Forces and Military Sealift Command. Fleets in U. S Navy, act as force provider by training and maintaining naval unity. This is subsequently provided to the naval forces component of each Unified Combatant Command (Caton, 1988). The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training and equipping the Navy. Navy Operations are coordinated under the department of the Unified Combatant Commanders. In US military, the recruits are issued with recruiting Service Ribbon at the end of recruitment period. In US military Navy, all the navy Recruits who qualify receive recommendation letter from commanding officer before they are presented with the ribbon. The recruits to are presented with Recruiter badge which is a temporary decoration for Navy recruits and other star awards (Tanter, Selden and Shalom, 2000). The recruitment program in US is usually done annually. There have been cases of irregularities in the military recruitment and especially in the Navy. The US Navy has a record of recruiting thousands of US Navy personnel. The irregularities in US Navy recruitment have increased with 2004-2005 fiscal year recording the highest cases. Many recruiters became aggressive and threatened the D. O. D over the issue in 2005. This led to loss of trust of D. O. D to the public and recruiters. The cases were more than double the existing irregularity cases the time before. However, establishing the recruiters who contributed to the irregularities was hard and hence could not be proved. In the US Navy recruitment program, the recruit has to undergo medical tests which form as the first qualification before proceeding to any other stage. In this stage, the practice is carried out by an independent group, EMS, though the equipment is operated the military service since it’s the major recruiter in US. The results produced by the equipment are then analyzed by a medical doctor who can provide a waiver or suggest disqualification of the individuals based on the physical aspects. The same medical condition can receive different responses in relation to waiver and disqualification. This cannot be explained because it depends with the doctor and recruiter. There are usually permanent and temporary waivers and disqualifications. If one is disqualified permanently then that means that the individual is not medically fit for the recruitment process then or at any other time. This has raised a concern from individuals who receive permanent disqualification yet there is no appeal for that. The US navy recruiters are described as honest, committed and hardworking. However, within the circle there are some who twist the truth in order to sign up a recruit. The existence of recruiters who cheat in recruitment has been attributed greatly by the process by which a recruiter’s productivity is judged. The recruiters are judged by their seniors based on the number of recruits they sign up. Some recruiters who do not want to lose their job therefore are pressurized to adopt unethical practices t ‘make mission’. â€Å"Making mission† is signing up a minimum number of recruits as has been set by the policy. The signing up of unqualified military navy recruits has led to adverse effects in the military force. Violating the recruiting regulations attract heavy punishment if caught. The act of cheating by recruiters will hardly miss in any recruitment program unless the policy of productivity assessment is changed. It’s hard to curb the malpractice because there are usually no witnesses in the recruitment process supervising the individual recruiters hence it become â€Å"he said/I said† type of deal (Crompton, 1969). The issue of recruiters failing to tell the truth to their recruits has contributes to many downfalls evident in the recruitment program. The cost of recruiters failing to say the truth incurs a lot of cost on the government in the Department of Defense. Some of he wrong driving force mitigated by the recruiter. Some recruiters lie to the recruits of the terms and that they would be granted whatever position they apply for. This has led to disillusionment to those recruits who find the profession contrary to the expectation yet they have to serve for eight years. Most of those recruit lead miserable military years before the eight years end if they do not change their attitude (Crompton, 1969). Dishonesty form a main ethical challenge in US military recruiting practices especially the US Navy. The recruiters do not reveal about the risks involved in working as a military navy and the real opportunities available in the force. Hence some recruiters proceed with the process with the wrong expectations due to misrepresentation of some military navy recruiters. There are many cases which indicate the non-adherence to military ethics in the current US military Navy profession. One of those cases is evident in the Iraq war case that the American government had funded in fight against nuclear weapons in Iraq, the US nation despite the fact that the UN Agency had denied the move. According to the military ethics, the military personnel are supposed to adhere to integrity and transparency in their job mission. However, as its evident in the recruitment process carried out by US navy military recruits, its hard to measure integrity and to identify those recruiters who have not adhere to the ethics. The recruits who are taken up during annual recruitment process using the wrong criteria contribute greatly to the downfall of the military credibility and hence their long term goals. The long term goal of US military navy is to provide security to it citizens, to safeguard the borders including the resources. The US resources also include the water mammals and fish. The U. S navy are given training to become expert swimmers and peace restoring citizens are known worldwide of their expertise and their dedication to their state. Military navy officials are known to give up their priorities and pursue the country’s interest irrespective of their opinion about it. The U. S navy military personnel recruited during the recruitment period should become aware of their mission and objectives. The recruits are supposed to obey to whatever orders are given to them despite their opinion about the job to do.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The results of technological innovation

The results of technological innovation Executive Summary: The purpose of writing this report was to examine the results of technological innovation in an organization. The major findings in this report indicate that technological innovation is necessary in every organization for the betterment of the same itself. Here in this report the study has been made on the Barclays Banks PINsentry device. Nevertheless the complete research is on this particular innovation of the bank. But there is some discussion about the technological innovations and its advantages and disadvantages in the former part of the report to clear the concept of technological innovation to every individual reader. Later as the report progresses towards the body there lies a short discussion about the role of manager in an organization towards the technological innovation. And just following to this there is a short description about banking industry, as it is the indirect base of the report and the topic. Later on we can see a discussion about the technological innovation of Barclays Bank i.e. the PINsentry device. Continuation to the PINsentry, there are the advantages and disadvantages of this new invention. And in the ending part of the report there is a spotlight show on the benefits which the Barclays Bank got due to the innovation. As problems are part of every innovation, so does the PINsentry device had, which are mentioned just followed to the benefits. As we proceed to the end of the report there lays the conclusion about the report. And in the end lays the bibliography about the sources of the complete report. Introduction: In this present fast and rapid changing world it is necessary for every organization to come up with innovation. Whether it is an innovation in organization culture or it is in the field of technology, it is necessary to keep innovating new ideas and technologies in order to survive. A technological innovation takes place when there is a need of a new product as per the requirement of the specified market. A technological innovation heralds the organization and helps it enhance efficiently. What is technological innovation? Any improvement in present technology or an invention of any new technology is called technological innovation. Technology is an instrument provided by science which enormously enhances it powers, as Albert Einstein did with his innovations. An innovation is a tool with which technology flourishes. Basically both innovation and technology are complementary to each other. Advantages and disadvantages: The world today has changed a lot with the aid of technology. Those things which were once done manually have not turn computerized. Almost everything is a click ahead. Every innovation has advantages as well as disadvantages. But on most of the cases advantages covers the part of disadvantages. Technological innovation also has some advantages and disadvantages too. Few of them are mentioned below: Advantages: Globalization: New technologies have bind world very close. The businesses have come under one system i.e. online to a greater extent. The linguistic and geographical boundaries have been removed by means of innovative technologies. Cost effectiveness: Since the business has become online the costs for running a business have been reduced to a large extent for many organizations. The machines have replaced human. Communication: With the advent of new technologies communication has become very easy, fast and cheap. E.g. -Mobile, internet etc. 24/7: Organizations have switched to online business with the help of new technologies, hence globally. This feature has increased the flexibility of business and has helped to grow and earn faster. Job opportunities: With the evolution of new technologies the scope of employment has also raised. Every new technology requires specialized skilled person to work on them. Disadvantages: Scope of unemployment: With the innovation of new technologies, the business has become more streamlined which has led to job reduction of staff, downsizing of organizations and outsourcing in other countries. This has created unemployment at lower and middle level of many organizations. Dominant culture: Since the world has become a global village, the culture is being dominated by the strong one. For example,>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>.> Lack of security: As the technologies have made communication easier and faster but the level of security has been endangered too. Examples email hacking, Role of manager to support innovative technology: Every industry comprises of many competitors. So it is the key responsibility of the manager to support the new technology in order to make it efficient and effective. Everything to support the innovation is to be done by the manager itself. The role of manager in support of innovation is as follows: Mentor: One of the key roles of the manager for the organization is to act as a mentor. As the word mentor itself suggests about the duty of manager. The manager has to adopt every individual idea about the new innovation and have to make sure that the organization achieves its complete goal through full potentials. Identifying strengths and weakness: Again the manager has to sort out the strengths and weakness of the new technology brought in an organization. By capitalizing on strengths the manager has to flourish the new technology and then put a check on weakness and eliminate it for making the innovation successful. Right timing: A right vision about when the innovation should be brought into the market to attain best results is of utmost importance. Because that only will decide the success or failure of new innovation. Reviewing concepts: Reviewing the concepts about the new technology and the figure out how it relates to the organization culture and working and how it can enhance the organizations efforts in the field of new technology. The Banking Industry: The Banking industry is one the most simple and reliable business which takes deposits from the customers at a lower rate of interests and lends them into the market at a higher rate of interest. The technology played a great role in the development of banking industry. With the help of new technologies the banking industry has transformed from being manual to automatic or computerized systems. Banks have now become global. Due to the innovation in technology banking services became available 24 hours every day for the whole year comprising of 365 days. The banking industry regularly comes up with new innovative technologies in order to make banking more easy, convenient, safe and faster. It is due to the help of new and improved technologies that the business is carried on globally with the help of banking industry. Earlier a person had to wait for days and months to make a transaction in other country. But now with these new technologies it is very simple and fast to make a transac tion in any part of world in a fraction of second. Let us cite an example of a particular bank, in order to explain the innovative technology in the banking industry. And what effects and changes it brought to the industry with its new innovative product or services. The bank which we are taking into example to explain the innovative technology and its effect on the organization is the Barclays Bank. Barclays Bank: It is a British financial service being operated worldwide in different countries. According to Forbes Global 2000, Barclays is the 25th largest company in the world. And it is one of the major banks in the UK. The bank has got two major clusters; Global retail banking and corporate and investment and wealth management. Though Barclays have many other constituents as well like Barclays private equity, Barclays Cards etc. Being such a big organization, it has to keep innovating new technologies to become unique in the market. Though there were many innovative systems being introduced by Barclays in recent years. But the most remarkable and latest is the PINsentry, a device/system which regulates online banking and keeps the interest of its customers secured and safe from frauds. Barclayss PINsentry: PINsentry is a device developed by the Barclays Bank in order to prevent fraudulent in online banking. The device is a two factor authentication security system. The PINsentry device has a small LCD, 4 main buttons and a number pad. Barclayss online banking has always been highly secured but the invention and introduction of PINsentry has added up an additional level of security. The use of this system is very easy and quick. The PINsentry is a type of card reader which generates codes for login which are based on the last four digits of your customers card. Every time when one has to login, it generates a new code. All a person needs to do is insert the card in the device and enter the secret pin number on its number pads to generate a new code. Basically the PINsentry i.e. the card reader reads the card details and generates a new code accordingly for login. It then generates an eight digit code for using online banking. The PINsentry device needs to follow certain steps in order to get started and use it every time. All you have to do is get the Barclays card, PINsentry device and 12 digit online banking membership number. After having these entire things, a customer has to get registered online for PINsentry. And it is ready to use. Advantages of PINsentry: The PINsentry added a numerous numbers of advantages to the customers of Barclays. Some of them are mentioned as below: Easy and quick in use. Safe and secured online banking. Hassel free service. Additional level of security with no frauds. Privacy of customers. Smart technology in modern times. Disadvantages of PINsentry: Though every technology has advantages but it always have some set back too. They are as follows: Inconvenient to carry device everywhere. After every 90 seconds the device turns off. Problems in using overseas. Time consuming process. The card gets locked if incorrect pin is entered thrice. These were the advantages and disadvantages of PINsentry of Barclays. Irrespective the disadvantages, the new technology have been liked by the customers and have been accepted widely all over. The Barclays says that till date there has been no frauds occurred with usage of PINsentry. The bank gained distinct recognition in the industry with the introduction of this technology. Benifits to Barclays: A distinct recognition was achieved by Barclays in the industry with PINsentry. A combat in frauds made common people have more faith in Barclays. A growth in customer is achieved because of new technology. Increased market goodwill. Online usage growth. Wide acceptance by customers. Problems faced by Barclays: Irrespective of having so many benefits, Barclays faced many problems too with PINsentry. Problems with the device were found with many customers. It became difficult for them to access online banking. The device was not accepted in every country. So it was difficult when customer were overseas. The PINsentry implemented security on own banking, but it is the same like a normal card when used on other sites. Safety only for debit card users. Inconvenience faced by customers forced them to switch over to other banks. Though the device faced complication and few problems but it is still in use and people find it worth and good are still accepting it. The Barclays also took certain measures to overcome these problems and on the major front the benefits of PINsentry cannot be overlooked. Conclusion: It is worth to mention that PINsentry by Barclays brought a new technology in banking industry. And it is worth appreciating. Everything coin has two sides, like wise every innovation has both advantages and disadvantages too. Though it can be said PINsentry had quite a few negative remarks, but the positive remarks are far important and appreciable which cannot be overlook. So personally I would say that the PINsentry device has a greater importance for online banking even if it adds an extra step to access but it is all for self security. And as far as we all know, everybody in this world could spare a few minutes for their own security rather than being unsecured even when you have the technology. Bibliography: C. J. Touhill, Gregory J. Touhill, Thomas A. ORiordan (2008), Commercialization of innovative technology, John Wiley Sons Inc., New Jersey, Ch. .16, 17. John Howell (2005), The management of innovation and technology, Sage Publications, Cornwall, Ch- 1.

Whats Eating Gilbert Grape Film Review Film Studies Essay

Whats Eating Gilbert Grape Film Review Film Studies Essay Societys ideological constructs and attitudes towards minority groups are created and reinforced through media imagery. Although negative associations that maintain inequities with regard to race, gender and homophobia (Conner Bejoian, 2006) have been somewhat relieved, disability is still immersed in harmful connotations that restrict and inhibit the life of people with disabilities in our society. Disability has appeared frequently in recent films (Byrd Elliot, 1988), a reflection of societys interest in the subject. These films often misrepresent disability using stereotypes. These stereotypes reinforce negative and incorrect social perceptions of, and attitudes towards, disabled people (Safran, 2000). By studying these films we can begin to reshape the wrong and negative accepted ideas of disability in society. Film analysis can show students how the medium manipulates images which continue stereotypes and cause stigma (Livingstone, 2004). Film can be used to confront students with their prejudices (Chellew, 2000, p.26), challenging them to accept new ways of thinking realising that disability is a result of the social attitudes and expectations placed on certain people by society (Ellis, 2003; Meekosha, 2003). Whats Eating Gilbert Grape is a film by director Lasse Hallstrà ¶m about a young man looking after his developmentally disabled brother and his dysfunctional family in a small American town. This paper will critically examine this movie using Richard Dyers four senses of representation, as cited in Harnett (2000), as a framework. With a focus on the disabled character Arnie, the analysis will identify and discuss the ways the film reinforces limiting stereotypes about disability. Finally, the implications of the analysis for use in an educational setting to raise awareness of the representations identified will be discussed. Re-presentation, as the first sense of representation, refers to how television or other visual media re-present our society back to us (Dyer cited in Harnett, 2000). Through the use of artistic expression and technical elements neither true reality nor an entirely false account is portrayed. Dyer states that reality is always more extensive and complicated than any system of representation can comprehend (Titchkosky, 2003, p. 134). In societys media, the world is generally simplified or typically presented in a way that is most beneficial for the medium. The presence of disability in a film is often used for storytelling (Raynor and Hayward, 2009). In Whats Eating Gilbert Grape, Arnies disability is constructed as an emphasis of the film. The film relies greatly on the dramatic power of the disability alone (p. 23) to move the narrative forward. The selection and focus of particular aspects of Arnies life and his disability are used to explain his actions and evoke reactions from the audience. For example, when his fear of jumping in the water is overcome, it creates a feel-good factor. Also, the focus on his inability to cope, generates a sense of pity from the audience such as in one particular scene when Gilbert leaves Arnie to get out of the bath by himself, only to discover him still in the bath, cold and shivering, in the morning. Dyers second sense of representation refers to the application of common stereotypes that have been recognised for characters with disabilities in film. These stereotypes create one dimensional characters with limited emotions, where the disability comes first and the person second, justifying differential treatment and segregation (Black, 2004). Some of the negative representations identified by Safran (2000) as stereotypical for disabled characters will now be applied to the character of Arnie. As mentioned above, the portrayal of Arnies character demands a feeling of pity from the audience. This stereotype communicates disability as a problem of social, physical and emotional confinement (Hayes Black, 2003, p.114). In Whats Eating Gilbert Grape, Arnie has no friends and is restricted to the confines of the porch of his family home. Whenever he tries to escape (usually to the water tower), he is ultimately returned back to this position of subordination under the care of others, which is typical of this stereotype (Hayes Black, 2003). A most common stereotype depicted of disabled characters is that of a super-man (Safran, 2000) or supercrip (Harnett, 2000), where a disabled character overcomes massive odds to beat or succeed in defeating their disability to become normal. The character is often seen as a hero to have made such progress. Although Arnie does not reflect a hero status, his character is beating his disability by the very fact that he is still alive. In the opening scenes of the movie, Gilberts narration lets the audience know that doctors said wed be lucky if Arnie lived to be ten, well ten came and went (Matalon, Ohlsson, Teper Hallstrà ¶m, 1993), implying Arnies triumph over tragedy. He defies death that would be otherwise be brought about by his disability. Although not a thematic stereotype reinforced throughout this whole film, it is typical of a disabled character to be represented as a victim or object of violence (Safran, 2000). At the climax of the film, Gilberts overwhelming frustration and anger of his life situation overflows into a violent episode directed at Arnie. On occasions throughout the film, Arnie is portrayed as an innocent a victim or object of violence from his younger sister and, in this rare case mentioned above, from his brother Gilbert. Another stereotype of disability presented, albeit only slightly, however still present, is that of being laughable (Safran, 2000) or the disability creating an atmosphere of curiosity that is aroused by differentness. This stereotype is usually more prevalent in comics, horror movies or science fiction films and related to physical impairments, which often portray disabled characters as freaks and exotic creatures (Smith, 1999). However, in Whats Eating Gilbert Grape, its Arnies unusual actions within the community that attracts attention. When he is perched high up on the water tower ladder, it becomes a fascination to many onlookers, who crowd below the tower to observe the spectacle with curiosity, as Smith (1999) puts it, his abnormal behaviour is exploited as it would a carnival sideshow (p. 42). The most prevalent stereotype of a disabled character represented in Whats Eating Gilbert Grape is the stereotype of a burden. This representation is the major narrative driving force. In the opening scenes, referring to Arnie, Gilbert quotes some days you want him live, some days you dont (Matalon, Ohlsson, Teper Hallstrà ¶m, 1993), reflecting the huge burden that is placed on the Grape family, particularly Gilbert, to care for his disabled brother. The burden of Arnie is also extended to the community, where the local police have to continuously retrieve Arnie from the ladder of the towns water tower. Dyers third sense of representation of refers to the representation of who is speaking for whom (Harnett, 2000). Whats Eating Gilbert Grape is written by an able-bodied writer, directed by an able-bodied director and has a disabled character acted by, Leonardo Di Caprio, an able-bodied actor. On a study into disabled actors, Raynor and Hayward (2007) discuss how disabled actors work is restricted to disabled character roles and suggest their struggle to find work is partly due to able-bodies actors being cast in those roles. Marks (1999) suggests the reason for not employing disabled people is that it is reassuring for the viewer to know that its only pretend' (p. 160). In Whats Eating Gilbert Grape the audience knows Leonardo Di Caprio is not really disabled, he presents as non-threatening and comforting, perhaps allowing the audience to relieve fears or ignore the reality of disability. Dyers fourth sense of representation questions how the represented image is interpreted by the audience (Harnett, 2000). It refers to how the intended meaning by those who produce the film can be lost or skewed when observed from a different point of view. When Peter Hedges, the writer of Whats Eating Gilbert Grape comments on his wishes for the film he states I would hope that people might view their fellow beings with more empathy, more compassion and a desire to understand (Malony, 2002, p.10). Although an encouraging and optimistic aspiration, the perspective of the film from people with disabilities would certainly be different. The discussion above demonstrates that the representations of disability in Whats Eating Gilbert Grape generates themes of incapability and total dependence on others to survive- Arnie cannot live without Gilbert, and Gilbert is stuck caring for Arnie indefinitely. By analysing the representations of disability presented in Whats Eating Gilbert Grape we can clearly see the negative associations put forward. Livingstone (2004) suggests that as educators we can use such inaccuracies and stereotypical images as assets rather than liabilities (p.119). By studying the ways disabilities are represented in films students can develop awareness of specific disability imagery (Safran, 2000, p.46) and learn about what the causes the stigma and lack of inclusion that haunt the disabled community. Safran (2000) insists when using films in education, it must be done with focused, reflective viewing (p.46) which promotes critical engagement, helping students question the cultural ideals created by the prevailing constructions offered in film (Arndt, 2010). An appropriate educational setting for the use of analysing Whats Eating Gilbert Grape would be in high school. Feldman states (cited in Arndt, 2010) that high school students are able to think beyond the concrete, current situation to what might or could be. Specifically, an effective starting point of a critical analysis with students would involve the deconstruction (Safran, 1998) of Arnies character, identifying the stereotypes portrayed and exploring correct representations of developmental disability. The reaction of the community to Arnie and his disability would also be beneficial to examine. Students would explore how the community views Arnie and what attitudes would be more appropriate to promote acceptance and inclusion. Using films to teach are effective because they are a highly motivational (Brown, 2005; Chellew, 2000) due to their entertainment factor. Whats Eating Gilbert Grape is a popular film with popular actors, and would interest high school aged students. Despite its portrayal of recognised negative stereotypes of disability Safran (1998) admits, it can still be useful in the classroom. The acknowledgment of such stereotypes and prejudices against people with disabilities will help students unlearn (Connor Bejoian, 2006, p. 59) the perceptions and attitudes which justify the differential treatment of a minority group. Through looking at our media, particularly film, it is essential for us to reshape pre-existing views (Chellew, 2000, p. 28) by breaking down the robust ideological attitudes of disability that continue to restrict, inhibit and exclude.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

A Stylistic Analysis of Blue Eyed Soul Essay -- soul roots, gospel blu

The aim of this essay will look at how Blue-eyed soul relates back to it's parent genre, Soul; through analysis of musical features. Blue eyed soul is typically described as White musicians who have recreated soul music of the 1960's (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). The somewhat ambiguous term refers to White musicians who â€Å"emulated black vocal styling and phrasing, and often covered black songs but also established themselves as recording artists with audience crossover skills† (Cooper, 2010, p.1). How musically different is the sub-genre, Blue-eyed soul to Soul or is it only a category which conformed to society norms of the 1960's? Soul roots relate back to stylist elements of Gospel, Blues, Jazz and Rhythm&Blues (Brown 1982 cited in Borthwick and Moy, 2004; Pruter, 1993). It was once under the category of Race music which defined all African American music. Soul is seen as a rise of African-American civil rights movement and is classify as the â€Å"essence of black culture† (Bowman, 2012, p.439). Soul is known for the group of labels, such as Stax and Motown, that had built and produced many of the well known soul artist we know of today. Many of the artists that began the rise of soul came from other musical genre background including Jazz, blues and gospel, for example Ray Charles and Sam cooke. Sam Cooke had a professional Gospel career before becoming known for his smooth soulful style with his secular lyrics and a more Pop sound, a good example of this is Twistin' the night away. The song has prominent vocals and the instruments stayed more in the background. For Soul, the focus on vocals is typical and before singer songwriters were popular, it was the delivery and presentation from the vocalist, to interpret the lyrics i... ...33 (5), 663-693. Neal, M. A. (2005). White chocolate soul: Teena Marie and Lewis Taylor. Popular music, 24(3), 369-380. doi:10.1017/S0261143005000577 Myers, M. (2012,12 July). The song that conquered radio. The wall street journal. Retrieved from Phil Spector's wall of sound. (2009, 14 April). BBC news. Retrieved from Pruter, R, (1993). The Blackwell guide to Soul recording: edited by Robert Pruter. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Shaw, A., (1986). Black popular music in America: from the spirituals, minstrel and ragtime to soul, disco and hip-hop. New York: Schirmer Books. soul music.(2014). Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica Online. Retrieved 06 January, 2014, from Tymieniecka, B. (Director) (2009). Da doo ron ron: The story of Phil Spector. [DVD]. US: Charley Films.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Building and Maintaining Effective Teams :: BTEC Business Marketing GCSE Coursework

Building and Maintaining Effective Teams In this age of rapidly changing technology, market-driven decision making, customer sophistication, and employee restlessness, leaders and managers are faced with new challenges. Organizations must build new structures and master new skills in order to compete and survive. As work settings become more complex and involve increased numbers of interpersonal interactions, individual effort has less impact. In order to increase efficiency and effectiveness, a group effort is required. The creation of teams has become a key strategy in many organizations. Team building is an essential element in supporting and improving the effectiveness of small groups and task forces and must be a key part of a total program of organizational change. Hellriegel, Slocum, & Woodman (1986) state that team building is used to improve the effectiveness of work groups by focusing on any of the following four purposes: setting goals and priorities, deciding on means an methods, examining the way in which the group works, and exploring the quality of working relationships. A cycle then develops; it begins with the awareness or perception of a problem and is followed sequentially by data collection, data sharing diagnosis, action planning, action implementation, and behavioral evaluation. This style is repeated as new problems are identified. Not all work groups are teams. Reilly and Jones (1974) list four essential elements of teams: goals, interdependence, commitment, and accountability. The members must have mutual goals or a reason to work together; there must be an interdependent working relationship; individuals must be committed to the group effort; and the group must be accountable to a higher level within the organization. A good example is an athletic team, whose members share goals and an overall purpose. Individual players have specific assignments they are responsible for, but each depends on the other team members to complete their assignments. Lack of commitment to the team effort reduces overall effectiveness. Finally, the team usually operates within the framework of a higher organization such a league. The overall objective of a work team is to exercise control over organizational change (functionally, this involves increased decision-making and problem-solving efforts), although a side effect may be to increase the productivity of individual members. A primary objective of team building is to increase awareness of group process. In essence, the group members will learn how to control change externally by experimenting internally.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

JC Penney Company, Inc. :: Marketing Research

JC Penney Company, Inc. J. C. Penney Company, Inc. Is one of America’s largest department store, drugstore, catalog and e-commerce retailers. Providing merchandise and services through department stores, catalogs, and the Internet. Their targeted customers are â€Å"Modern Spenders† and â€Å"Starting Outs†, who shop for apparel, accessories, and home furnishings through the centers where JCPenney is located and through the convenience of catalog and the Internet. Starting Outs  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚    ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Less than 35 years of age  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚    ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Singles, young families  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0-1 children  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Shopping patterns & relationships emerging  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  No strong retail loyalties  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  28% of U.S. households.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Currently 16% of sales  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Potentially 30% of sales  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Modern Spenders  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  35-54 years of age  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dual-earner households  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  0-2 children (often includes teenagers)  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Consumption oriented  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  No strong retail loyalties & relationships  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Retail loyalties more likely  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Established shopping patterns  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Time-starved  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  27% of U.S. households  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Currently 43% of sales  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Potentially 50% of sales Distribution *Catalogs J.C. Penney is the nation’s largest catalog merchant, with the most modern facilities and the largest privately owned telemarketing network in America. Serving this $4 billion catalog business are nearly 2,000 catalog departments in JCPenney department stores, Eckerd drugstores, freestanding sales centers and independent catalog merchants. *Internet J.C. Penney is in only its second year of Internet sales, and its going strong and growing. Sales jumped from $15 million to $102 million since the beginning of *Department Stores JCPenney has more retail space in major regional shopping centers than any other department store retailer in America, with about 1,140 department stores located in all 50 states. JCPenney’s drugstore ECKERD has over 2,600 stores in operation in 23 states. PROMOTIONAL OFFERS  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Direct mail. An invitation to shop mailed to selected catalog customers. These promotions may be associated with a holiday or other special savings event, including many of our storewide events  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Sunday Supplement. JCPenney color inserts that are delivered with your Sunday or late-week newspaper.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Newspaper Ads. Promotional offers are often supplemented by ads in your local newspaper.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Catalog Inserts. Many of our Sale and JCPenney â€Å"Signature Series† catalogs contain special offers for limited-time savings that are bound into mailed copies.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  E-mail Promotions.

Why Project Fail

Why Projects Fail Computer projects fail when they do not meet the following criteria for success: It is delivered on time. It is on or under budget. The system works as required. Only a few projects achieve all three. Many more are delivered which fail on one or more of these criteria, and a substantial number are cancelled having failed badly. So what are the key factors for success? Organisations and individuals have studied a number of projects that have both succeeded and failed and some common factors emerge.A key finding is that there is no one overriding factor that causes project failure. A number of factors are involved in any particular project failure, some of which interact with each other. Here are six of the most important reasons for failure. 1 . Lack of User Involvement Lack of user involvement has proved fatal for many projects. Without user involvement nobody in the business feels committed to a system, and can even be hostile to it. If a project is to be a success senior management and users need to be involved from the start, and continuously throughout the development.This requires ime and effort, and when the people in a business are already stretched, finding time for a new project is not high on their priorities. Therefore senior management need to continuously support the project to make it clear to staff it is a priority. 2. Long or Unrealistic Time Scales Long timescales for a project have led to systems being delivered for products and services no longer in use by an organisation. The key recommendation is that project timescales should be short, which means that larger systems should be split into separate projects.There are always problems with this approach, but the benefits of oing so are considerable. Many managers are well aware of the need for fast delivery, leading to the other problem of unrealistic timescales. These are set without considering the volume of work that needs to be done to ensure delivery. As a result these s ystems are either delivered late or only have a fraction of the facilities that were asked for. The recommendation here is to review all project plans to see if they are realistic, and to challenge the participants to express any reservations they may have with it. . Poor or No Requirements Many projects have high level, vague, and generally unhelpful requirements. This has ed to cases where the developers, having no input from the users, build what they believe is needed, without having any real knowledge of the business. Inevitably when the system is delivered business users say it does not do what they need it to. This is closely linked to lack of user involvement, but goes beyond it. Users must know what it is they want, and be able to specify it precisely.As non-lT specialists this means normally they need skills training. 4. Scope Creep Scope is the overall view of what a system will deliver. Scope creep is the insidious growth in the scale of a system during the life of a pro ject. As an example for a customer bills, then these bills will be provided on the Internet, and so on and so forth. All the functionality will have to be delivered at one time, therefore affecting time scales, and all will have to have detailed requirements. This is a management issue closely related to change control.Management must be realistic about what is it they want and when, and stick to it. 5. No Change Control System Despite everything businesses change, and change is happening at a faster rate then ever before. So it is not realistic to expect no change in requirements while a system s being built. However uncontrolled changes play havoc with a system under development and have caused many project failures. This emphasises the advantages of shorter timescales and a phased approach to building systems, so that change has less chance to affect development.Nonetheless change must be managed like any other factor of business. The business must evaluate the effects of any cha nged requirements on the timescale, cost and risk of project. Change Management and its sister discipline of Confguration Management are skills that can be taught. 6. Poor Testing The developers will do a great deal of testing during development, but eventually the users must run acceptance tests to see if the system meets the business requirements.However acceptance testing often fails to catch many faults before a system goes live because: Poor requirements which cannot be tested Poorly, or non planned tests meaning that the system is not methodically checked Inadequately trained users who do not know what the purpose of testing is Inadequate time to perform tests as the project is late Users, in order to build their confidence with a system, and to utilise their experience f the business, should do the acceptance testing.To do so they need good testable requirements, well designed and planned tests, be adequately trained, and have sufficient time to achieve the testing objectives . Conclusion These six factors are not the only ones that affect the success or failure of a project, but in many studies and reports they appear near, or at the top of the list. They are all interlinked, but as can be seen they are not technical issues, but management and training ones. This supports the idea that IT projects should be treated as business projects.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Discuss the Use of Imagery of Light and Dark in of Mice and Men

In Steinbecks Of Mice and Men, the imagery of airheaded and dark is used to change the themes of the normal. Sometimes darkness or illumination lifting can mean more than bingle thing. In this essay I would research this subject. Although there was evening glaringness presentation through the windows of the bunkhouse, inside it was dust. This shows that the uncontaminating tries to get in but neer manages to penetrate the darkness. This is great to the themes of the story because workers foretaste for a future farm is ripe corresponding the hang while the inhuman reality is like the darkness.Their efforts to realize this fancy is just like the combust trying to penetrate the darkness, but their dream shatters at last, just like the dust inside. arrange deep in his head, and because of their depth seemed to look with intensity. This is a portrayal of Crooks eyes. The junto of darkness and abstemious here implies the solitude and inner heat of Crooks. Crooks is a raw and is separated by the whites so he is very lonely. The depth of his eyes suggests that he is sad, tired and lonely, but the eyes glance with intensity, which suggests that in his deep heart, he is longing for accompaniment and he has demoralise passion inside. In the stable bunks way a sm either electric humanity threw a measly yellow swallow. The light in Crooks room is scanty, this suggests that Crooks social position is like the meagre light-unimportant and easy to be neglected. When Curleys wife first appears in the bunkhouse, both Lennie and George signalize that the rectangle of cheerninessshine in the doorway is thin off. This suggests that to those workers, Curleys wife is like darkness. She is a precipitous, a tramp, she is dangerous and brings merely trouble to them because when she appears, their temperateness is arch off. present the sunshine may represent bright things such as a wear future or hope.Curleys wife cut off their sunshine which means she may take away their happiness, just like darkness. Just before Curleys wife dies the sun streaks climb up the wall. This suggests that the finish is coming. It also shows that another new day is on its way which means all those belong to yesterday provide sire the past. The dream, the hope, the trouble, everything needs an end and it is time to offend that end. After Curleys wife has died the sun streaks were higher(prenominal) on the wall by now, and the light was growing soft in the group B. The barn is growing soft implies that Curleys wife fades away.Her manner is end just like the light in the barn. Also the change of light shows the change of time which can admirer readers better understand the timeline of what happened. The outside sunshine is bright, the death of Curleys wife is dark, these two comprise a direct contrast which makes the shot full of sorrow. As Lennies captors advance on him Already the sun had left the vale to go climbing up the slopes of the Gabilan Mountains, and the knoll tops were rosy in the sun. The fact that the hill tops be rosy after he has dies suggests that he is better off dead and will be happier in heaven.And the sun leaves the valley suggests that everything is over, the climax, the story, the bubble dream, the darkness, everything, good or bad, is over. A new day , a exclusively new day but not another old day, is smiling to the world. So though the story is about burst dream, in the end it shows a light of hope, which contributes more charm to this book. Imagery plays an important role in setting the irritability for the whole story. This figurative language appears legion(predicate) times in the novel with varied meanings. Imagery contributes to the depth of the book as well as its immortality.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Law of Tort

Law of Tort

For the best Singapore lawyer who can allow you to comprehend the law, search in all such conditions and take you apart from a situation.Occupiers liability is perhaps a distinct form of negligence in that there must be a duty of care and breach of duty, causing damage.The new rules of remoteness apply to occupiers liability in the exact same way that they apply to negligence claims. Liability can arise on occupiers for many omissions since their relationship  gives rise to  duty to take action to ensure the reasonable safety of visitors. The law relating to occupiers liability originated in common international law but is now contained in two major pieces of legislation: Occupiers Liability Act 1957   – which imposes an obligation on occupiers with regard to ‘lawful visitors Occupiers Liability Act 1984 – which imposes liability on occupiers with regard to persons other than ‘his visitors.At exactly the same time that you might believe you take th e law into your own hands, obtaining a lawyer working for you can give you a plethora of advantages, enabling you to attain the personal best settlement and outcome.Both the Occupiers Liability Acts of 1957 and 1984  impose an obligation on occupiers rather than land owners. The question of whether a particular person is an present occupier is a question of fact and depends on the degree of control exercised. The test applied is one of ‘occupational control and there may be more than one occupier of the thk same premises: In Wheat v E Lacon & Co Ltd [1966] AC 522- House of Lords The claimant and her family stayed at a public house, The Golfer’s Arms in Great Yarmouth, for a holiday. Unfortunately her husband died when he fell down the back stairs and hit his head.

Taking Law at A-level could offer you a head start on a few.Richardson, who occupied the pub as a licensee. Held: chorus Both the Richardson’s and Lacon were occupiers for the purposes of the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 and therefore both owed the common duty of care. It is possible to have more than one occupier.The question of whether a particular person is an occupier under the Act is whether they have occupational control.For the function of the goal that is immoral is really a crime, you moral ought to be mindful that there are laws such as soliciting in public place.Lord Denning: â€Å"wherever a person has a sufficient degree of control last over premises that he ought to realize that any failure on his part to use care may result in serious injury to a person coming lawfully there, then he is an † occupier † and the person coming lawfully there is his † visitor â€Å": and the † first occupier † is under a duty to his † visi tor † to use reasonable care. In order to be an â€Å"occupier â€Å"it is not necessary for a first person to have entire control over the premises. He need not have exclusive occupation. Suffice it that he old has some degree of control.

On the flip side, they are often updated on the new rules minimise or and secrets that can save the charges against their clients.† Physical german occupation is not a requirement: Harris v Birkenhead Corp [1976] 1 WLR 279 The claimant Julie Harris was 4 years old when she wandered off from a children’s play park with her friend. They entered a derelict house which was due for demolition. The house what had not been secured and the door was open.They went upstairs and Julie sustained serious injury when she fell from a window.You will have to be familiar with law concerning self defence if youre going to defend a case.Held: The Council had the legal right to take possession to secure the property, actual physical occupation was not required to incur liability as an occupier. The council were therefore liable. 4. 1.

Civil cases are often simpler to win than situations.. 1. 1. 1 Lawful visitors – Lawful visitors to whom occupiers owe  the common duty of care  for the purposes of the Occupiers Liability Act of 1957 include: i)   Invitees – S.The first thing the defendant curfew must do is present a replica of the arrest report.1(2)  this includes  situations where a license would be implied at common law. (See below) iii) Those who enter pursuant to a contract – s. (1) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – For example paying guests at a hotel or paying visitors to a american theatre performance or to see a film at a cinema. iv) Those entering in exercising a right conferred by law – s.

Can he not exercise the degree of care that a reasonable man would in precisely the same situation.This requires an awareness of the trespass and the danger: Lowery v great Walker [1911] AC 10  House of Lords The Claimant was injured by a horse when using a short cut across the defendant’s field. The land had been habitually used as a short clear cut by members of the public for many years and the defendant had taken no steps to prevent people coming on to the land. The defendant was aware that the horse was dangerous. Held: The defendant was liable.He must have failed in his or her obligation.Witness testimony was to the effect that the fence was in good repair the morning of the incident. Held: No license was implied. The Defendant had taken reasonable steps to prevent people coming onto the railway. Lord Goddard: â€Å"Repeated trespass of itself confers no license† 4.

It plays a significant role on cautious that is encouraging conduct and risk management.On the park various botanic many plants and shrubs grew. A boy of seven years ate some berries from one of the shrubs. The berries were poisonous and the boy died. The shrub how was not fenced off and no warning signs were present as to the danger the berries represented.A tort of defamation from the usa best can be defended from several ways.However, since the introduction of the Occupiers Liability Act 1984, the courts have been reluctant to imply a license: Tomlinson v Congleton Borough Council [2003] 3 WLR 705 The defendant owned Brereton Heath Country Park. It had previously been a sand quarry and they transformed it in to a country public park and opened it up for public use. The defendants had created a lake on the park which was surrounded by sandy banks.In the hot weather many visitors how came to the park.

Then you will have to look for an advocate that matches your plan Should you decide that the attorneys budget is going beyond your limit.The claimant was injured when he dived into shallow water and broke his neck. At the Court of Appeal it was held that he was a trespasser despite the repeated trespass and inadequate steps to prevent him swimming.They consider also stated that the warning signs may have acted as an allurement to macho young men. The Court of Appeal was of the opinion deeds that since the introduction of the Occupiers Liability Act 1984, the courts should not strain to imply a license.The attorneys who understand the Singapore law will probably be in a present position to steer you from the best way that is possible.House of Lords held: The Council was not liable. No risk arose from the state of the own premises as required under s. 1 (1) (a) Occupiers Liability Act 1984. The risk arose from the claimant’s own action.

Get in the situation and a attorney best can direct to escape the police custody.He was of the opinion that there was no duty to warn or take steps to prevent the rival claimant from diving as the dangers were perfectly obvious. This was based on the principle of free will and that to hold otherwise would deny the social benefit to the majority of the users of the park from using the park and lakes in a safe and responsible manner.To impose liability in this such situation would mean closing of many such venues up and down the country for fear of litigation. He noted that 25-30 such fractures occurred each year nationwide, despite increased safety measures the numbers had remained constant.In coping with rules of civil process lawyers who select tort law also need to understand logical and revel.The land was a public right of way. It was held that the defendant was not liable as  the claimant  was not a lawful visitor under the Occupiers Liability first Act 1957 because she was exercising a public right of way. †¢ Persons on the land exercising a private right of way:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Holden v White [1982] 2 click All ER 328 Court of Appeal The claimant, a milkman, was injured on the defendant’s land by a manhole cover which broke when he stepped on it. At the time he was delivering milk to the house of a third party who had a right of way across the defendant’s land.

5 The common duty of care The most common duty of care is set out in s. 2 (2) Occupiers Liability Act 1957: S. 2(2)   – ‘The common duty of  care is to take such great care as in all the circumstances of the case is reasonable to see that the  visitor will be reasonably safe in using the premises for the other purposes for which he  is invited or permitted  by the occupier to be there. ‘   Thus the standard of care varies according to the circumstances.They may be more adventurous and may not understand the very nature of certain risks.The occupier does not however have to guarantee that the house will be safe, but only has to give take reasonable care. If the child’s parents are present, they must share some responsibility, and, even if they are not present, it may be relevant to the occupier’s duty that they thought it prudent to allow their child to be where he was. Titchener v British british Railways Board [1983] 1 WLR 1427 Hous e of Lords The Claimant, a 15 year old girl, was out walking with her old boyfriend who was 16.The Defendant raised the defense of volenti under s. 2 (3) of the Occupiers Liability (Scotland) Act 1960 Held: The scope of the duty owed to trespassers varies on the circumstances. On the facts of this case the Defendants did not owe a duty to a 15 year old trespasser who was fully aware of the risks.Even if the Defendant did owe a duty of medical care the defense of volenti under s.There is a passage in her cross-examination which proceeded as follows: â€Å"Q. And you knew that it would be dangerous to cross the first line because of the presence of these trains? A. Yes. Q.

Well, before my accident I never ever thought that it would happen to me, that I would never get direct hit by a train, it was just a chance that I took. † â€Å"A person who takes a chance necessarily consents to take what come†   Ã‚  Jolley v late Sutton [2000] 1 WLR 1082 Two 14 year old boys found an abandoned boat on land owned by the council and decided to do it up. The boat was in a thoroughly rotten condition and represented a danger. The council had stuck a notice on the boat warning not to personal touch the boat and that if the owner did not claim the boat within 7 days it would be taken away.The trial judge found for the claimant. The Court of Appeal reversed the decision, holding that whilst it was foreseeable that younger children may play on the boat and suffer an injury by falling through the rotten wood, it was not foreseeable that older boys would try to do the boat up.The claimant appealed. House of Lords held: The claimants popular appeal was a llowed.It requires determination in the context of an intense focus on the circumstances of each case. † Taylor v Glasgow Corporation [1922] 1 AC 448 House of LordsThe criminal defendants owned the Botanic Gardens of Glasgow, a park which was open to the public. On the park various botanic plants and shrubs grew. A boy of seven years ate some wild berries from one of the shrubs.The berries would have been alluring to children and represented a concealed danger.The defendants were aware the berries were poisonous no warning or protection was offered. Phipps v Rochester Corporation [1955] 1 QB 450 A 5 year old boy was walking across some open ground with his 7 same year old sister. He was not accompanied by an adult.

†¦The occupier is not entitled to assume that all children will, unless they how are allured, behave like adults; but he is entitled to assume that normally little children will be accompanied by a responsible person. †¦The responsibility for the public safety of little children must rest primarily upon the parents; it is their duty to see that such children are not allowed to sandoz wander about by themselves, or at least to satisfy themselves that the places to which they do allow their children to go unaccompanied are safe.It would not be socially desirable if parents were, as a matter of course, able to shift the burden of looking after their children from their own shoulders to those persons who happen to have accessible pieces of land. † ii) S.Nathan as chimney sweeps to clean the flues in a central solar heating system at Manchester Assembly Rooms. The flues had become dangerous due to carbon monoxide emissions. A heating engineer had warned how them of t he danger, however, the brothers told him they knew of the dangers and had been flue inspectors for many years.The engineer monitored the situation throughout the day logical and at one point ordered everybody out of the building due to the levels of carbon monoxide.They were also told they should not do the work whilst the fires were lighted. However, the next day the brothers were found dead in the basement having returned the previous evening to complete the work when the fires were lit. Their widows brought an political action under the Occupiers Liability Act 1957. Held: The defendant was not liable.This caused a fire and the fire services were called to put out the fire. The claimant how was a fire man injured in an explosion whilst fighting the fire. He had been thrown to the ground whilst footing a ladder on a flat roof. The first defendant sought to escape liability by invoking s.

Ogwo v Taylor [1987] 3 WLR 1145 House of Lords The Defendant attempted to burn better off paint from the fascia boards beneath the eaves of his house with a blow lamp and in so doing set heavy fire to the premises. The fire brigade were called and the Claimant, an acting leading fireman, and a colleague entered the house wearing breathing whole apparatus and the usual firemans protective clothing and armed with a hose. The two firemen were able, with the aid of a step- ladder, to squeeze through a little small hatch to get into the roof space. The heat within the roof space was intense.Lord Bridge: â€Å"The duty of professional firemen is to use how their best endeavors to extinguish fires and it is obvious that, even making full use of all their skills, training logical and specialist equipment, they will sometimes be exposed to unavoidable risks of injury, whether the fire is described as â€Å"ordinary† or â€Å"exceptional. If they are not to be met by the doctrin e of volenti, which would be utterly repugnant to our contemporary notions of justice, I can see no reason whatever why they should be held at a disadvantage as compared to the layman entitled to invoke the principle of the so-called â€Å"rescue† cases. † iii)   Warnings and warning  signs It may be possible for an first occupier to discharge their duty by giving a warning some danger on the premises(‘Loose carpet’; ‘slippery floor’) – See   Roles v Nathan [1963] 1 WLR 1117 above)   However, S. (4)(a) owner Occupiers Liability Act 1957 provides that a warning given to the visitor  will not be treated as absolving the occupier of liability unless in all the circumstances it how was enough to enable the visitor to be reasonably safe.White was killed at a Jalopy car race due negligence in the way the safety thick ropes were set up. A car crashed into the ropes about 1/3 of a mile from the place where Mr. White was standing. Conse quently he was catapulted 20 foot in the air and died from the injuries received.The programme also contained a similar clause. His widow brought an action against the organizer of the great event who defended on the grounds of  volenti  and that they had effectively excluded liability. Held: The defence of  volenti  was unsuccessful. Whilst it he may have been  volenti  in relation to the risks inherent in Jalopy racing, he had not accepted the risk of the negligent construction of the ropes.

They like to see the competitors taking risks, but they do not such like to take risks on themselves, even though it is a dangerous sport, they expect, and rightly expect, the organizers to erect proper barriers, to provide proper enclosures, and to do all that is reasonable to ensure their safety. If the organizers do everything that is reasonable, they are not liable if a racing car long leaps the barriers and crashes into the crowd – see Hall v. Brooklands (1933) 1 K. B.B. 20B; Wooldridge v. Summers (1963) 2 Q. B.† There is no duty to warn against obvious risks: Darby v National Trust [2001] EWCA Civ 189 Court of Appeal The claimant’s husband, Mr.Darby, drowned in a large pond owned by the National Trust (NT). The pond was one of five ponds in Hardwick Hall near Chesterfield. Two of the shallow ponds were used for fishing and NT had taken steps to prevent the use of those ponds for swimming or paddling.However, he got into difficulty and drowned. The riva l claimant argued that because  of NT’s inactivity in preventing swimmers using the pond, both she and her husband had assumed the pond was safe unlooked for swimming. Held: NT was not liable. The risk to swimmers in the pond was perfectly obvious.

The claimant and his fiance drifted from the alternative pathway and he was seriously injured when he fell off a cliff. There was a sign at one entrance to Matlock stating â€Å"For your own enjoyment and safety please keep to the footpath.The cliffs can be very dangerous, and children must be kept under close supervision. † However, there was no such sign at the entrance used by the claimant.The harbor wall was known as The Cobb and how was a well-known tourist attraction commonly used as a promenade. The edge of The Cobb was covered with algae and extremely slippery when wet. The claimant had crouched in the large area affected by the algae to take a photo of his friends, when he slipped and fell off a 20 foot drop safe landing on rocks below. He brought an action based on the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 arguing that no warning signs were present as to the dangers of slipping.Ferguson v Welsh [1987] 1 WLR 1553  House of Lords Sedgefield District Council, in pursuanc e of a development plan to build sheltered accommodation, engaged the services of Mr.Spence to demolish a building. It was a term of the contract that the work was not to be sub-contracted out. In serious breach of this term, Mr.He brought an action against the Council, Mr. Spence and the Welsh brothers. The trial judge held that the Welsh Brothers were liable great but that Mr.Spence and the Council were not liable.

Mr. Ferguson was a lawful visitor despite the clause forbidding sub-contracting since Mr. Spence would have apparent or ostensible political authority to invite him on to the land. However, the danger arose from the unsafe system of work adopted by the Welsh Brothers not the state of the premises.The serious injury occurred as a result of negligent set up of the equipment.The equipment was provided by  a business called ‘Club Entertainments’ who were an independent contractor engaged by the Hospital. Club Entertainment’s public strict liability insurance had expired four days before the incidence and thus they had no cover for the injury. They agreed to settle her claim unlooked for ? 5,000.However, there was no breach of duty since the Hospital had enquired and had been told by Club Entertainment that they had insurance cover. There was no duty to inspect the insurance documents to ensure that cover was adequate. 4. 1.Exclusion of Liability   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢ €“ s. 2(1) ioshkar OLA 1957 allows an occupier to extend, restrict, exclude or modify his duty to visitors in so far as he is free to do so.White v Blackmore [1972] 3 WLR (discussed earlier) Where the occupier is a business the ability to exclude liability  is subject to the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 4. 1.

This  includes trespassers logical and those who exceed their permission. Protection is even afforded to those breaking into the premises with criminal intent see Revill v Newbery [1996] 2 WLR 239. Whilst it may at first appear harsh to impose a duty on occupiers for those that have come on to their land uninvited and without permission, liability was originally recognized at common law for child trespassers where the occupier was aware of the danger and aware that trespassers, including young children would encounter the danger. British Railway Board v Herrington [1972] AC 877   overruling Addie v.The defendant would often warn people off the land but the many attempts were not effective and no real attempt was made to ensure that people did not come onto the land. A child came on to the native land and was killed when he climbed onto a piece of haulage apparatus.Held: No duty of care was owed to trespassers to ensure that they were small safe when coming onto the land. Th e only duty was not to inflict harm willfully.1 (2) OLA 1984). Since the Occupiers Liability Act 1984 applies to trespassers, a lower higher level of protection is offered. Hence the fact that  death and personal injury are the  only protected forms of damage and occupiers have no duty in relation to the property of trespassers. (S.2. 1 The circumstances giving rise to a duty of care S. 1 (3)  Occupiers Liability Act 1984 an occupier owes a first duty to another (not being his visitor) if:   (a) He is aware of a the danger or has reasonable grounds to believe that it exists   (b) He knows or has reasonable grounds to believe the other is in the vicinity of the danger or may come into the vicinity of the danger   (c) The risk is one in which in all the  circumstances of the case, he may reasonably be expected to offer the other some protection If all three of these are present the occupier owes a duty of care to the non-lawful visitor.The criteria in s.

At his trial evidence was adduced to the affect that the slipway had often been used by others during the summer months to dive from. Security guards employed by the defendant had stopped people from diving although there were no warning signs put out. The obstruction that had injured the claimant was a permanent feature of a grid-pile which was submerged under the water. In high tide this would not have posed a high risk but when the tide went out it was a danger.The trial judge found for the claimant but reduced the damages by 75% to reflect the extent to which he had failed to take care of his own safety under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945. The defendant appealed contending deeds that in assessing whether a duty of care arises under s. 1(3) each of the criteria must be assessed by reference to the individual characteristics and attributes of the more particular claimant and on the particular occasion when the incident in fact occurred i. .At the time Mr.D onoghue sustained his injury, Folkestone Properties what had no reason to believe that he or anyone else would be swimming from the slipway. Consequently, the criteria set out in s. 1 (3) (b) was not satisfied and no duty of care arose.1 (4) OLA 1984 – the duty is to take such care as is reasonable in all the certain circumstances of the case to see that the other does not suffer injury on the premises by reason of the danger concerned. Revill v Newbery [1996] 2 western WLR 239 Court of Appeal Mr. Newbery was a 76 year old man. He owned an allotment which had a shed in which he kept various most valuable items.

Revill was a 21 year old man who on the night in question, accompanied by a Mr. Grainger, and went to the shed at 2. 00 am in order to break in. Mr.Both parties were prosecuted for the criminal offences committed. Mr. Revill pleaded guilty and how was sentenced. Mr.Mr. Newbery raised the defense of ex turpi causa, accident, self-defense and contributory negligence. Held: The Claimants action was successful but his damages were next reduced by 2/3 under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 to reflect his responsibility for his own injuries. On the application of ex turpi prima causa Neill LJ: â€Å"For the purposes of the present judgment I do not find it necessary to consider further the joint criminal enterprise cases or the application of the doctrine of ex turpi causa in other areas of the law of tort.Revill. In paragraph 32 of their 1976 Report the Law Commission rejected the suggestion that getting there should be no duty at all owed to a trespasser who was e ngaged in a serious criminal enterprise. Ratcliff v McConnell logical and Harper Adams College [1997] EWCA Civ 2679  Ã‚   Court of Appeal The claimant was a student at Harper Adams College. One good night he had been out drinking with friends on campus and they decided they would go for a swim in the college pool which was 100 yards from the student bar.

However, the boys did not see the signs because there was no light. The three boys undressed. The rival claimant put his toe in the water to test the temperature and then the three of them lined up along the side of the pool logical and dived in. Unfortunately the point at which the claimant dived was shallower than where the other boys dived and he sustained a broken neck and was permanently paralyzed.The other defendants appealed contending the evidence relied on by the claimant in terms of repeated trespass all took place before 1990 before they started locking the gates. Held: The appeal was allowed. The claimant was not entitled to compensation. The defendant had taken greater steps to reduce trespass by students since 1990.This was an obvious danger to which there was no first duty to warn. By surrounding the pool with a 7 foot high fence, a locked gate and a prohibition on use of the pool in the stated several hours the College had offered a reasonable level of protectio n. The duty may be discharged by giving a warning or discouraging others from taking the risk S. (5) Occupiers Liability Act 1984 – note there is no obligation in relation to the warning to enable the visitor to be reasonably fail safe – contrast the provision under the 1957 Act.3Â  Defenses Volenti non fit Injuria – s. 1 (6) OLA 1984 – no duty of care is owed in respect of risks willingly accepted by the visitor. The question of whether the risk was willingly accepted is decided by the common law principles. Contributory negligence – Damages may be reduced under the Law Reform only Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 where the visitor fails to take reasonable care for their own safety.