Monday, January 20, 2020

Perversion of Society :: essays research papers

Perversion of Society   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In today’s society a person is shaped by family, friends, and past events, but in Aldous Huxley’s classic novel, Brave New World, there is no such thing as family, history and â€Å"true† friends. The government controls every aspect of an individual from their creation in the hatcheries to their conditioning for their thoughts and careers. In this brave new world the ideas of stability and community reign supreme, and the concept of individualism is foreign and suppressed, â€Å"Everyone belongs to everyone else, after all,† (47). Huxley perverses contemporary morals and concepts in Brave New World, thus distorting the ideas of materialistic pleasures, savagery versus society, and human relationships. These distortions contribute to the effectiveness of Brave New World, consequently creating a novel that leaves the reader questioning how and why.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the year A.F. 632 no pleasure is denied to the populous. Hypnopaedia is used as a device to form the moral education of children. What is taught through this method is not true ethics, but warped actions trained by words. An illustration of this is in the teaching of Elementary Sex to children. The society that Huxley created was one where having sex often and with many people was a positive course of action. Anyone who did not have multiple partners, such as Lenina or Bernard, were considered a blight to society. Society as a whole uses the act of having sex as relief from pain and emotions. A person does not have to lust for someone they merely set up a time and place for them to meet and have sex, and it is completely accepted by everyone. When sex is not enough to relieve a person from pain or loneliness they take soma, a drug that stimulates them into happiness. Unlike the drugs of present day there is no set backs from taking soma, no headaches after use, and after all â€Å"One cubic centimetre cure ten gloomy,† (60). Finally, there is the concept of feelies, movies that you can feel what the actors are doing. These feelies are nothing more than glamorized porn movies giving the participants quick orgasmic feelings without effort. All these materialistic pleasures are used to substitute an individuals basic emotional needs and to give them a false sense of happiness. Huxley used this warped view on what today’s society deems morally right and wrong to reveal how shallow the citizens of the brave new world truly are.

Sunday, January 12, 2020


Module I Nature and scope of Management; evolution of management- Schools of management thought; F.W.Taylor and Henry Fayol; principles of management; management as a science and an art; management process. Folk management and its application in the modern era Evolution of management thought. Module II Functions of management- planning: planning premises; types of plan; planning process; Organization – Theories, types, importance, organization structure- Line and Staff functions – Conflicts; centralization and decentralization; delegation; types, principles, elements, Coordination, Directing – Supervision, Communication. Module III Directing – motivation, leadership – Theories; importance – Controlling principles – Dynamics of Groups at work, work group behavoiur and productivity; work and motivation Manager vs. leader; leadership and motivation; leadership styles; theories of motivation. MBO: – team creation and Management ; Module 1V Organizational learning and knowledge management Time management. Module V Management of Change – importance, objectives and methods – Role of leadership Transformational management. Books: 1. Koontz, H and Weihrich, H: Management, McGraw Hill Inc, New York, 1995. 2. Drucker, Peter, F: Management: Tasks, Responsibilities and Practices, Allied Publishers, New Delhi 2004. 3. Betman, Thomas S and Snell, Scott A.: Management: Competing in the New Era, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 2003. 4. Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, Principles of Management: Text and Cases, Pearson, 2012 5. Stoner et al. Management, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1996. 6. Stephen P Robbins, and Mary Coulter, Management, Pearson, 2003. Pre requisite: DROPBOX ACCOUNT. Download Principles of management by F.W.Taylor from iBook and Read. EVERY ALTERNATE SESSION WILL CONTAIN PRESENTATION BY STUDENTS TO EVALUATE THE LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING OF PREVIOUS SESSIONS. SESSIONS Topics Methodology Outcome Remarks 1 Introduction; Two way study pattern; Exam and application level, Syllabus and recommended books Understand exam pattern, Evaluation pattern, Teaching Methodology. 2 Evolution of management BBC Interactive flash on Egyptian Pyramid construction, PPT Virtual difficulty and importance of management. 3 Nature and scope of Management Discussion based on previous session Virtual difficulty and importance of management. 4 to 6 Schools of management thought F.W.Taylor, PPT, Lectures and discussion F.W.Taylor ipad book , To Understand the real Application in Industry. 7 to 9 Henry Fayol; principles of management PPT, Lean bicycle factory software, Lectures and discussion To Understand the real Application in Industry. 10 Management as a science and an art Debate Incubate the thought process. 11-13 Folk management and its application in the modern era Explore, lecture, Assignment1: Identify folk management at local level and look it as a business opportunity. Explore the innovative folk management as an business opportunity 14 Functions of management VS Business Functions. Concept clarity through examples Understand the basic difference between the two terminologies. 15 to 17 Class test Module 1 Written examination Preparation for University exam 18 to 21 Planning: planning premises; types of plan; planning process Lecture and Assignment2: Prepare a plan to start up a small grocery store. Application of planning. 22 to 25 Organization – Theories, types, importance, organization structure- Line and Staff functions – Conflicts; Ppt lecture and discussion Assignment3 Get an organization Structure of an existing firm and justify changes you will like to make Understanding Pros and cons of organization structure 26-27 Centralization and decentralization Domino’case study Application in real context 28-29 Delegation; types, principles, elements, Coordination, Hospital as an example Ppt lecture and discussion Application in real context 30-31 Directing – Supervision, Communication Lecture ppt example Understand the importance of relationship between subordinates 32-33 Directing – motivation, Ppt lecture and discussion Motivation theory and its application areas Applicability in Marketing and HR 34-36 Leadership – Theories; importance Ppt lecture and discussion Application of these theories 37-39 Class Test Module 2 Written examination Preparation for University exam 40-42 Controlling principles Why Controlling need? Understand the importance of Controlling 43-45 Dynamics of Groups at work, work group behaviour and productivity; work and motivation Ppt lecture and discussion and group based activities Realize the importance of team work 46-48 Manager vs. leader; leadership and motivation; leadership styles; theories of motivation. MBO: – team creation and Management ; Ppt lecture and discussion and Debate on the best styles Understand Which type of style when and where to use 49 Organizational learning and knowledge management Time management. Ppt lecture and discussion Understand that it is a continuous lifelong process Class Test Module 3 Written examination Preparation for University exam 50-51 Management of Change – importance, objectives and methods – Ppt lecture and discussion Able to Tackle the change 52-53 Role of leadership Transformational management. Ppt lecture and discussion Understand Which type of style when and where to use 54-56 Class Test All Modules Written examination Preparation for University exam 57-60 Revision Individual presentation

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Huddled Masses The Immigrant Of American Society

As time goes on, more and more immigrants venture to live in the United States. Throughout all of this, as a nation, we maintain a generally warm and welcoming stance towards immigrants. Unfortunately, lawful entry has become a massive multifaceted issue, resulting in a massive influx of illegal immigrants. Coerced by politics, the government allows illegal immigrants to enter, resulting in severe damage to the United States economy. Eventually, as the United States government fails to properly implement existing laws, illegal immigration is accelerated, creating more issues in the structure of the government that loom over the health of the country and its citizens. Back in the days of New York and Ellis Island, only a few things would bar entry to the United States. Alan Kraut, author of â€Å"The Huddled Masses: The Immigrant in American Society†, wrote that â€Å"If they did not receive stamps of approval, and many did not because they were deemed criminals, strikebreaker s, anarchists or carriers of disease, they were sent back to their place of origin at the expense of the shipping line† (Kraut). The process for an individual becoming a legal resident is far more complex than it used to be. For someone to qualify to become a resident of the United States, an individual needs to go through long applications to obtain a green card or visa. By law, any resident not in possession of these documents is to be immediately deported. A strict policy, certainly, but is theShow MoreRelatedThe Bean Trees Literary Analysis1339 Words   |  6 Pagesprotection, a statue symbolic of the spirit of America. In the piece, Lazarus refers to immigrants as the â€Å"poor, huddled masses† to whom the United States offers a pair of open â€Å"golden doors.† However, many immigrants today feel far removed from the land of freedom referenced in The New Colossus. The promise of a blue sky with endless possibilities is far from reality for the Americans that the poem calls the huddled masses. It is clear that America’s promise of freedom and opportunity, characterized byRead MoreAmericans : Just Without The Right Papers893 Words   |  4 PagesAmericans: Just Without The Right Papers â€Å"The contribution of immigrants can be seen in every aspect of our national life. We see it in religion, in business, in the arts, in education, even in athletics and in entertainment, there is no part of our nation that has not been touched by our immigrant background† (President John F. Kennedy 1959). Like President John F. Kennedy many other Presidents, before and after him Republican and Democrat, have shared these ideals of freedom and opportunity forRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Round Trip On America By Mark Wyman1466 Words   |  6 PagesAmerica: The Immigrants Return to Europe 1880-1930, Mark Wyman argues that many new immigrants that migrated to America from 1880-1930 never intended to make America a permanent residence and many of them returned home to their native countries. He claims that this phenomena is important to the history of American Immigration and is important to the histories of the home land in which the immigrants returned to. In his book, Wy man explores some key ideas such as the reason immigrants decided to voyageRead MoreEssay on Social Stratification and The Importance of Class1042 Words   |  5 PagesLife, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. This is a phrase that all Americans are familiar with, for it outlines our American values and sets up our declaration of independence. Many Americans consider themselves part of a nation of opportunity for all, regardless of race, gender or nationality, yet hardly do we ever choose to question whether or not this is actually true. As Americans there are certain values that we hold very dear, for example freedom, equality and opportunity. These are theRead MoreWho Is an American?1660 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Who is An American? The authors response to the Atwan collection as well as the journal articles reviewed by the author of this paper is pretty simple. It can be concisely stated as the following. Open immigration is never going to be a viable solution, amnesty (for the third time in three generations) is not a good idea without some major follow-up, and the economic consequences of allowing 12 million (estimated) immigrants becoming legal overnight is not the panacea and feel-good fest thatRead MoreThe Politics Of The United States1548 Words   |  7 Pageslabeling his order as ‘discriminatory’ and ‘un-American’. Though it is easy to be consumed by the social dogma presented in today’s media, I think it is important for people to take a step back and view situations such as this with an impartial mind, blocking out the conjecture, and simply focusing on the facts. I decided to write my Unit 1 article over the topic of ideology; which is the set of beliefs held by an individual, group, or society. In the midst of the aftermath of one ofRead MoreIllegal Immigration Speech Essay765 Words   |  4 Pagespoor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. These words are engraved on the Statue of Liberty that was assembled in 1886. The statue was meant to be a beacon of hope for all immigrants that enter the U.S. Do we still agree with what those words say? I’m not against all of the immigrants who want to start a better life here by becoming legal citizens. I’m against the millions of illegal immigrants that come to the U.S. and cause trouble and make things harder for the legal immigrants that areRead MoreIllegal Immigration And The United States1126 Words   |  5 Pagesof proper immigration can cause harmful consequences, and while there is much debate over what to do with the many illegal immigrants in the country, it is evident that it is a burden and very damaging. Illegal immigration dates all the way back to the nineteenth century, and since then has only grown more apparent. Around this time, however, illegal, and legal immigrants were frowned upon and there were heavy efforts to reduce immigration under the power of President Herbert Hoover’s administrationRead MoreSocial Studies Grade 8 : Immigration Research Project1677 Words   |  7 PagesKieran Doolabh May 16, 2016 Social Studies Grade 8 IMMIGRATION RESEARCH PROJECT Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. This is the quote on the Statue of Liberty, which greets hundreds of immigrants as they come into the United States. Many people have made the long, tiring journey from their home country to ours, and they still do today. People immigrate, but what does the word immigrate even mean? To immigrate is to leave one sRead MoreImmigration : The Ongoing Question1419 Words   |  6 PagesImmigration: The Ongoing Question It was estimated in 2014 that there were at least 11.3 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States. Illegal immigration has been in the headlines for the last ten years and will forever plague the United States of America. New immigration policy such as the â€Å"Priority Enforcement Program† was implemented in 2015, and programs like these are one of the main topics up for debate in the upcoming election. Over seventy-five percent of people deported back to

Friday, December 27, 2019

How to Write a Lab Report - Steps and Template

Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Some instructors require the lab report be included in a lab notebook, while others will request a separate report. Heres a format for a lab report you can use if you arent sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report. Lab Report A lab report is how you explain what you did in ​your  experiment, what you learned, and what the results meant. Lab Report Essentials Title Page Not all lab reports have title pages, but if your instructor wants one, it would be a single page that states:​ The title of the experiment.Your name and the names of any lab partners.Your instructors name.The date the lab was performed or the date the report was submitted. Title The title says what you did. It should be brief (aim for ten words or less) and describe the main point of the experiment or investigation. An example of a title would be: Effects of Ultraviolet Light on Borax Crystal Growth Rate. If you can, begin your title using a keyword rather than an article like The or A. Introduction / Purpose Usually, the introduction is one paragraph that explains the objectives or purpose of the lab. In one sentence, state the hypothesis. Sometimes an introduction may contain background information, briefly summarize how the experiment was performed, state the findings of the experiment, and list the conclusions of the investigation. Even if you dont write a whole introduction, you need to state the purpose of the experiment, or why you did it. This would be where you state your hypothesis. Materials List everything needed to complete your experiment. Methods Describe the steps you completed during your investigation. This is your procedure. Be sufficiently detailed that anyone could read this section and duplicate your experiment. Write it as if you were giving direction for someone else to do the lab. It may be helpful to provide a figure to diagram your experimental setup. Data Numerical data obtained from your procedure usually is presented as a table. Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. Its just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean. Results Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion (Results Discussion). Discussion or Analysis The Data section contains numbers. The Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved. Conclusions Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means. Figures and Graphs Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis. The dependent variable (the one you are measuring) is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report. The first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc. References If your research was based on someone elses work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Although Eichendorff’s story displays religious elements,...

Although Eichendorff’s story displays religious elements, the pious facets take on a different form than in Psyche. In â€Å"The Marble Statue†, Sunday remains a holy day where evil subsides. God and Satan manifest into the metaphysical through characters, settings, and motifs. Fortunato is a pure character directing Florio towards the path of the righteous man while Donati is a sinister man leading the boy into temptation. The seductress is the embodiment of evil while Bianca is the good. The aspect of religion is demonstrated in a more direct manner in Psyche. The artist abandons a life of art to become a brethren of the covenant where it is proclaimed the Goddess of Art is â€Å"a witch who carries towards vanity, towards earthly pleasure†. The†¦show more content†¦On the other hand, Florio’s lack of self-control leads him to the guilt of a sinful lust. With the thought of his seductress plaguing his mind, he is never satisfied with the real wo man in his life. Consumed by lust and desire, he constantly longs for more in his earthly life. The sins reveal the weakness of the protagonists and provokes their course to redemption. â€Å"The Marble Statue† and â€Å"The Psyche† are both narrated in 3rd person. However, the teller of Florio’s story is a homodiegetic narrator lending an outside perspective on the world being described, but does not play a part in it. The Psyche’s is a heterodiegetic narrator as the bright morning star living in the story, yet revealing the history of another. The morning star plays a role that can be seen as a biblical reference and even Jesus himself. Jesus identifies Himself as ‘the bright morning star’ in Revelation 22:16. The irony of the morning star as Jesus is the young artist abandoned his talent to directly seek and satisfy God in a holy life with the church. However, he did not need to seek Jesus for he was already watching over him the entire span of his life and even thereafter. An element present among both stories in the role of nature and the gates, gardens and fountains within them. Within mythology and symbolism, gardens are seen as a motif of an untouched, primal state where nothing is lacking including companionship, food, and drink. The garden

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

At the start, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are kind hostess, but by the end they are this dead butcher and his fiend

At the start, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are kind hostess, but by the end they are this dead butcher and his fiend-like queen Essay Malcolms description is justified only to an extent because Macbeth and Lady Macbeth followed the path the witches engineered for them to follow, and the witches ensured that the seeds of evil within them grew. However, it was Lady Macbeths insistence on Duncans death that started Macbeths corruption and led to him being a tyrant because alone Macbeth would not have acted as he harboured too many doubts. The influence of the witches is shown right at the beginning of the play, where the witches immediately plant the influence of evil and supernatural into the play. To meet with Macbeth adds the association of evil with Macbeths name as soon as possible, suggestion that the hero depicted in the next scene might not really be a hero. In the beginning, Macbeth is a good soldier, an ability that stays with him to the end. He is loyal to the king and respected by the captain, who refers to him as brave Macbeth and admires Macbeths courage and skill on the battlefield Macbeth has also reached the rank of captain, a high rank in the military, Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo? This is highly praised at the time; military being considered a good career. Therefore, Macbeth would be a rich and influential man. Duncan, the king, also praises Macbeth valiant cousin, worthy gentleman. It is a great honour to be praised by Duncan and Macbeth would obviously deserve it. The king respects him and is proud of Macbeth being his relation. All that remains of this by the end is Macbeths military skill, the respect for him having been shattered by his actions. He is still brave at the end, yet I will try the last. When Macbeth meets the witches, their prophecies affect him deeply. He is first addressed as Thane of Glamis, a title he has, Thane of Cawdor, a title which Macbeth does not yet know he has and that shalt be king hereafter. Macbeth is affected so deeply that is visible to Banquo, why do you start. Macbeth is shocked, perhaps because he had contemplated being king before. The witches had seen the possibility for evil within Macbeth and have given him something sufficient to ensure that he sets his feet on the path of evil they had given him the idea, the ambition was already there. This is an influence that stays with him throughout the play, on which he becomes more and more dependent. Some time later, Macbeth is addressed as Thane of Cawdor by Ross, who bears the news of Macbeths new title from the king. Macbeth is very surprised as he did not expect the witches to be correct although he wanted to know more from them, Why do you dress me / In borrowed robes? It seems too good to be true, making him wonder if the third prophecy will come true, Glamis, and Thane of Cawdor, / The greatest is behind. Macbeth realises that the witches probably do not wish him well, but he thinks that they do not wish to harm him, cannot be ill, cannot be good. He is aware of the fact that the witches are supernatural, but ignores Banquos warning that the witches should not be trusted. He thinks that they are telling the future as it is going to happen, and ironically enough they are Macbeth is going usurp the throne. However, he considers the prophecies deeply, and this leads him to consider murdering Duncan for the first time. He is still a fundamentally good character, and is horrified at the very thoughts, calling them horrible imaginings. At the time, he concludes the line of thought with the decision chance / may crown me, as he realises that if he acted to ensure that he got the crown it would be dishonourable and he will condemn himself, it would be morally wrong. The witches have already influenced Macbeth he has already considered murder once. Macbeths inward evil had started to move to the surface once it had been contaminated by inherent evil, the witches. Lady Macbeth receives a letter from Macbeth telling her of the witches prophecies. This does not have any important plot meaning as Macbeth could have easily told her about it when he arrived home. Rather, it shows the closeness of Macbeth and Lady Macbeths relationship. The gesture is important as it shows Macbeths urge to share the news with his wife, although the letter would probably only arrive a few hours before him. The closeness of their relationship is further shown by Macbeths entrance and their way of address, Macbeth addresses Lady Macbeth as my dearest love. They waste very little time on greetings, and Lady Macbeth dominates the conversation with her much longer speeches. She is very commanding towards Macbeth: you shall put / This nights great business into my dispatch, something that would have been very unlikely in Shakespearian times. This close relationship changes as Macbeth slides into evil. In Macbeths first major soliloquy he expresses the doubts he has about Duncans murder he realises that the only thing driving him is ambition. The Modern Caribbean - Literature EssayWhile having agonised over Duncans death, now he is so soon after the first murder he is ordering the murder of his best friend. He does not need Lady Macbeth anymore, and had acquired some finesse: now he is paying others to commit murders for him. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths relationship has suffered after Duncans murder and Lady Macbeth is very disconnected from what Macbeth is now doing she has to ask information from a servant, Is Banquo gone from court? , Macbeth has been avoiding her and does not share everything with her anymore, Why do you keep alone? , she needs to ask him, and then he does not give proper answers, keeping much to himself, including Banquos upcoming murder Be innocent of the knowledge. Macbeth takes very little notice of Lady Macbeth while talking about how he envies the dead Duncan and his speeches are full of omens of evil full of scorpions is my mind and black Hecates summons Macbeth is now fully connected with evil which has come to the fore-front of his character. Lady Macbeth has lost her status as a dominant speaker and Macbeths speeches lead the conversation, taking little or no notice of what his wife says. Also, Lady Macbeth is not the dearest partner in greatness anymore shown by Macbeth ordering her to come with him, prithee go with me. The next scene of importance is Macbeths seeing of Banquos ghost at the Banquet. This shows the immense sense of guilt, since the ghost is unseen to other guests and Macbeth has hallucinated. This is what finally drives Lady Macbeth over the edge her last waking and sane words are at the end of the scene. Macbeth is again influenced by the supernatural following a decision to see the witches again. He demands to know what will happen in the future and is unafraid of what may be revealed. He is willing to sacrifice everything for the knowledge, even natures order, castles topple on their warders heads, trees blown down. Macbeth takes each of the prophecies deeply to heart and considers each for a long time but yet Ill make assurance double sure. He interprets only the seeming literal sense of the prophecies, unaware that these are to trick him and are in fact saying how he will fall, not why he will survive. He takes confidence from the prophecies and they are what leads him to ordering the deaths of Macduffs family, a massacre he would have been unlikely to commit without something helping him to reach that conclusion. That murder is perhaps the most terrible since Macbeth is murdering not the person he wants removed, but people associated with Macduff. This deed I will do before purpose cool shows that this is spur of the moment action, highly likely to be influenced by what he had just seen. He wants it done immediately, since he seems afraid that if he thinks it through properly he will realise that this is not a good thing to do. Macbeth has abruptly become much more ruthless, but he is not a true tyrant because somewhere he knows that what he is doing is wrong. Lady Macbeth has gone insane from guilt, and is sleepwalking. All her desires have been inverted where she wanted darkness on the night of Duncans murder, she now has light by her constantly. Her sentences are very disconnected and she finally realises that she had sent herself to hell, Hell is murky. She feels guilty even for the murders Macbeth committed on his own because she set him on that path by convincing him to kill Duncan, Thane of Fife had a wife; where is she now? She is entirely eaten up in guilt and reliving all her experiences on the night of the murder over and over again, A soldier, and afeard? . She also gives a suggestion that Macbeth is also feeling extremely guilty and that he cannot sleep either, I tell you yet again Banquos buried; he cannot come out ons grave. Malcolms description of Macbeth is justified Macbeth has indeed become a dead butcher, murdering ruthlessly, having steadily descended into evil, from first Duncans murder, then Banquos, massacre of Macduffs family being the worst. He does retain some humanity, as he feels guilty until the end. However, the description of Lady Macbeth as a fiend-like queen is only justified if her actions at the beginning are taken into account. Later, she has no influence over Macbeths actions and wants him to stop his way of bloodshed, going insane and committing suicide at the end. However, it is her actions at the beginning to convince Macbeth to start murdering are what led to his fall and reign of evil and death.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The New Deal and Social Welfare Policy

Introduction The New Deal is a term that was popularized by Franklin Roosevelt. It had programs and measures that he came up with to cope with the problems experienced. These problems arose because of the great depression, which occurred in the United States in 1930.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The New Deal and Social Welfare Policy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The New Deal involved a number of reforms that were focused to deal with problems affecting the social, economic and government arenas. It was adopted by each state. It went a long way in helping the US as a country especially in pulling it out of this hard time. This is why it was considered as a major breakthrough in American history (Shlaes, 2007). The social welfare system in America changed greatly during the 1930s. Before the changes, the local governments for each region distributed relief. Consequently, this led to the rise of vari ous problems, as there were some scandals that arose. In 1933, the method was changed and the system was made much larger. The parties that were involved in this were the federal, state and local government. Bureaucracy dominated the scene because of these actions. The permanent social welfare system that was developed by the social security act contributed significantly to this process (Jansson, 2012). Social and economic conditions that led to the enactment of the New Deal programs The great depression This is one of the major problems that led to the need to adopt the New Deal. Various factors led to this. A key factor, which was a major cause of the great depression, was the stock market crash, which took place in the year 1929. There was a major loss of about 40 billion dollars within a period of only two years (Shlaes, 2007) Stockholders had lost too much money; despite attempts to recover some of the losses, the gap could still not be filled. By 1930, the great depression bec ame inevitable. After the stock market crash, banks started failing. Over nine thousand banks closed, due to the difficulties they were experiencing. The remaining banks were not insured, and people lost their savings when the banks crashed. The remaining banks in order to remain afloat restricted the issuing of loans hence making it hard for most businesses to sustain themselves (Shlaes, 2007).Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A major outcome of the great depression was unemployment. Due to the crash of the stock market and banks, many people lost their jobs. This was due to the rampant layoffs to maintain the businesses. Some businesses went bankrupt hence the workers from the failed businesses lost their jobs. The decline of the buying of goods also led to unemployment. People became unsure of the situation after the stock market crash and bank failures. They decided to keep their money. This, in turn, led to less production hence bringing down the need of a big workforce, which eventually led to a reduction in labor. Another blow to the economy was the policy to reduce the number of imports from Europe from entering the country. Though this policy served to protect American companies, it led to a decline in trade between the countries, and eventually resulted to economic restrictions as the countries also held back in supplying resources that were needed by the US (Jansson, 2012). Unemployment led to rural to urban migration as many people who were unemployed decided to move to urban centers to try their luck in getting jobs. Most people in the rural areas who are farmers experienced severe poverty. They had over exploited the soils and did not have the funds to invest in agriculture. This led to a large influx of people moving to the urban centers, and this, in turn, led to an increase in population in the areas. The situation was further worsened by the fact that foreigners were also entering the country in large numbers to get jobs. These migrations led to the overpopulation of the urban centers. Overpopulation led to overcrowding which resulted in a strain on the social amenities, as the services were not enough for the large population. This also resulted in an increase in the crime rate as certain people opted for unacceptable methods of getting income.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The New Deal and Social Welfare Policy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some companies took advantage of this situation and employed underage children at a very low wage to save money. Housing also became a problem, as the houses available could not hold the large population. This led to homelessness as many citizens could not afford homes and the rent was unaffordable to them. There was a big problem when it came to social welfare services. Non-profit organizatio ns that volunteered and the local government did the provision of social welfare services. This minimized welfare, and in most cases, it was discriminatory. African Americans were given almost no welfare assistance benefits (Barrow, 2007). The system at this time was also corrupt as most welfare money was misused and unaccounted for (Jansson, 2012). New Deal Programs There was the Emergency Banking Act. This was established immediately after President Roosevelt took over presidency. FDR issued an order for the closure of all the banks in the country. Congress had passed the emergency Banking Act that authorized the government to assess all the banks in terms of their sustainability. This policy was meant to ensure that all the banks that were operating were legit and well managed. During the great depression, many banks had closed due to poor management and this greatly affected the economy and citizens (Jansson, 2012). The implementation of this program was to ensure that such a sc enario would not happen again. The formation of the FDIC – the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation – was implemented to insure bank credits worth 5000 US dollars. This greatly boosted the banking sector. It reassured the citizens that banks were safe and in case of any complications, compensation was guaranteed. Good banks were then re-allowed to reopen and in a very limited time span, the citizens re-deposited their money in the banks (Venn, 1998).Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Social Security Act was another program in the New Deal package. It aimed to give welfare services and benefits to those who needed assistance. It was established after a careful scrutiny of the problems the citizens were experiencing and how the government would chip in to support them. It included the provision of pensions after a citizen was no longer employed. This was to ensure that the retiree could still be getting some money to help them through their problems. It also included benefits for survivors of industrial accidents; there was unemployment insurance, aid for mothers who were dependant and their siblings. It also catered for the physically challenged (Jansson, 2012). This Act assured the citizens of peace of mind in case these unexpected and unavoidable circumstances happened. This policy was very effective as it responded to the problems of the disadvantaged groups in the society and in turn offered millions of citizens’ security. This Act has had a huge i mpact on the current welfare policy as the current policy has adopted most of this principles and ideologies into its system. Most if not all of these policies may be currently adopted into the current welfare policy. The only difference is that they have been re-modified to fit the current conditions. A number of organizations were also set up to help in the implementation of the New Deal. An example of one of the organizations is the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC). HOLC was set up to deal with the issue of home ownership. Many people were experiencing this common problem because of unemployment. This made many people appear unable to afford homes and eventually led them to lose their jobs. This organization was formed to prevent specifically people from losing their jobs. It did this by refinancing mortgages of average paid citizens who owned homes. This was helpful in the regulation of home repossessions (Jansson, 2012). Another organization that was set up was the Federal E mergency Relief Administration (FERA). Harry Hopkins managed this. The agency funded depleting relief agencies. It gave out five million dollars in two hours. This program also funded public work programs. The main reason this program was set up was so that it could help in sustaining the other relief programs that were experiencing financial difficulties. Getting finances was a major problem during this time as not many groups were willing to fund these agencies. Relief agencies aided a lot as they helped the people significantly, especially the needy. These organizations have had a huge impact on the current social welfare policy. From their establishment the government still gives home financial aid to the citizens who are not in a position to finance their home mortgages, it also funds banks and in turn influences the low cost of mortgages. The government also makes an initiative to fund relief agencies when they experience problems. Conclusion The New Deal marked a significant turning point in American history. Its adaptation resulted in the pull of America from a hard financial time. Before the implementation and enactment of the New Deal, the country was going through a number of social and economic conditions that were not favorable to the citizens. These conditions were the great depression, unemployment, rural to urban migration, overcrowding, crime etc. The main reason that led to the need for reforms through the New Deal was the great depression. This caused many problems in the country (Venn, 1998). Its implementation was dependent on a number of programs. These programs were focused on key aspects that were affecting the people. Three important programs that were incorporated in this plan was the Emergency Banking Act, which was aided by the formation of the Federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC). The second program was the Social Security Act. Some organizations were also set up as programs this included the Home Owners Loan Corporation an d Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). These programs have also influenced and affected the current social welfare policy. The current social welfare policy has been created based on the ideologies and aspects dwelt on at that time. The basic ideas remain the same, but the only difference is in the addition of more policies and the restructure of the old ones, to fit the current social and economic conditions. References Barrow, F.H. (2007). Forrester Blanchard Washington and his advocacy for African Americans in the new deal. Social Work, 25(4), 201-208 Jansson, B. S. (2012). The reluctant welfare state. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Shlaes, A. (2007). The forgotten man: A new history of the great depression. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Venn, F. (1998)The new deal, Edinburgh, England: Edinburgh University Press. 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