Friday, December 27, 2019

How to Write a Lab Report - Steps and Template

Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Some instructors require the lab report be included in a lab notebook, while others will request a separate report. Heres a format for a lab report you can use if you arent sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report. Lab Report A lab report is how you explain what you did in ​your  experiment, what you learned, and what the results meant. Lab Report Essentials Title Page Not all lab reports have title pages, but if your instructor wants one, it would be a single page that states:​ The title of the experiment.Your name and the names of any lab partners.Your instructors name.The date the lab was performed or the date the report was submitted. Title The title says what you did. It should be brief (aim for ten words or less) and describe the main point of the experiment or investigation. An example of a title would be: Effects of Ultraviolet Light on Borax Crystal Growth Rate. If you can, begin your title using a keyword rather than an article like The or A. Introduction / Purpose Usually, the introduction is one paragraph that explains the objectives or purpose of the lab. In one sentence, state the hypothesis. Sometimes an introduction may contain background information, briefly summarize how the experiment was performed, state the findings of the experiment, and list the conclusions of the investigation. Even if you dont write a whole introduction, you need to state the purpose of the experiment, or why you did it. This would be where you state your hypothesis. Materials List everything needed to complete your experiment. Methods Describe the steps you completed during your investigation. This is your procedure. Be sufficiently detailed that anyone could read this section and duplicate your experiment. Write it as if you were giving direction for someone else to do the lab. It may be helpful to provide a figure to diagram your experimental setup. Data Numerical data obtained from your procedure usually is presented as a table. Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. Its just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean. Results Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion (Results Discussion). Discussion or Analysis The Data section contains numbers. The Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved. Conclusions Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means. Figures and Graphs Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis. The dependent variable (the one you are measuring) is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report. The first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc. References If your research was based on someone elses work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Although Eichendorff’s story displays religious elements,...

Although Eichendorff’s story displays religious elements, the pious facets take on a different form than in Psyche. In â€Å"The Marble Statue†, Sunday remains a holy day where evil subsides. God and Satan manifest into the metaphysical through characters, settings, and motifs. Fortunato is a pure character directing Florio towards the path of the righteous man while Donati is a sinister man leading the boy into temptation. The seductress is the embodiment of evil while Bianca is the good. The aspect of religion is demonstrated in a more direct manner in Psyche. The artist abandons a life of art to become a brethren of the covenant where it is proclaimed the Goddess of Art is â€Å"a witch who carries towards vanity, towards earthly pleasure†. The†¦show more content†¦On the other hand, Florio’s lack of self-control leads him to the guilt of a sinful lust. With the thought of his seductress plaguing his mind, he is never satisfied with the real wo man in his life. Consumed by lust and desire, he constantly longs for more in his earthly life. The sins reveal the weakness of the protagonists and provokes their course to redemption. â€Å"The Marble Statue† and â€Å"The Psyche† are both narrated in 3rd person. However, the teller of Florio’s story is a homodiegetic narrator lending an outside perspective on the world being described, but does not play a part in it. The Psyche’s is a heterodiegetic narrator as the bright morning star living in the story, yet revealing the history of another. The morning star plays a role that can be seen as a biblical reference and even Jesus himself. Jesus identifies Himself as ‘the bright morning star’ in Revelation 22:16. The irony of the morning star as Jesus is the young artist abandoned his talent to directly seek and satisfy God in a holy life with the church. However, he did not need to seek Jesus for he was already watching over him the entire span of his life and even thereafter. An element present among both stories in the role of nature and the gates, gardens and fountains within them. Within mythology and symbolism, gardens are seen as a motif of an untouched, primal state where nothing is lacking including companionship, food, and drink. The garden

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

At the start, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are kind hostess, but by the end they are this dead butcher and his fiend

At the start, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are kind hostess, but by the end they are this dead butcher and his fiend-like queen Essay Malcolms description is justified only to an extent because Macbeth and Lady Macbeth followed the path the witches engineered for them to follow, and the witches ensured that the seeds of evil within them grew. However, it was Lady Macbeths insistence on Duncans death that started Macbeths corruption and led to him being a tyrant because alone Macbeth would not have acted as he harboured too many doubts. The influence of the witches is shown right at the beginning of the play, where the witches immediately plant the influence of evil and supernatural into the play. To meet with Macbeth adds the association of evil with Macbeths name as soon as possible, suggestion that the hero depicted in the next scene might not really be a hero. In the beginning, Macbeth is a good soldier, an ability that stays with him to the end. He is loyal to the king and respected by the captain, who refers to him as brave Macbeth and admires Macbeths courage and skill on the battlefield Macbeth has also reached the rank of captain, a high rank in the military, Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo? This is highly praised at the time; military being considered a good career. Therefore, Macbeth would be a rich and influential man. Duncan, the king, also praises Macbeth valiant cousin, worthy gentleman. It is a great honour to be praised by Duncan and Macbeth would obviously deserve it. The king respects him and is proud of Macbeth being his relation. All that remains of this by the end is Macbeths military skill, the respect for him having been shattered by his actions. He is still brave at the end, yet I will try the last. When Macbeth meets the witches, their prophecies affect him deeply. He is first addressed as Thane of Glamis, a title he has, Thane of Cawdor, a title which Macbeth does not yet know he has and that shalt be king hereafter. Macbeth is affected so deeply that is visible to Banquo, why do you start. Macbeth is shocked, perhaps because he had contemplated being king before. The witches had seen the possibility for evil within Macbeth and have given him something sufficient to ensure that he sets his feet on the path of evil they had given him the idea, the ambition was already there. This is an influence that stays with him throughout the play, on which he becomes more and more dependent. Some time later, Macbeth is addressed as Thane of Cawdor by Ross, who bears the news of Macbeths new title from the king. Macbeth is very surprised as he did not expect the witches to be correct although he wanted to know more from them, Why do you dress me / In borrowed robes? It seems too good to be true, making him wonder if the third prophecy will come true, Glamis, and Thane of Cawdor, / The greatest is behind. Macbeth realises that the witches probably do not wish him well, but he thinks that they do not wish to harm him, cannot be ill, cannot be good. He is aware of the fact that the witches are supernatural, but ignores Banquos warning that the witches should not be trusted. He thinks that they are telling the future as it is going to happen, and ironically enough they are Macbeth is going usurp the throne. However, he considers the prophecies deeply, and this leads him to consider murdering Duncan for the first time. He is still a fundamentally good character, and is horrified at the very thoughts, calling them horrible imaginings. At the time, he concludes the line of thought with the decision chance / may crown me, as he realises that if he acted to ensure that he got the crown it would be dishonourable and he will condemn himself, it would be morally wrong. The witches have already influenced Macbeth he has already considered murder once. Macbeths inward evil had started to move to the surface once it had been contaminated by inherent evil, the witches. Lady Macbeth receives a letter from Macbeth telling her of the witches prophecies. This does not have any important plot meaning as Macbeth could have easily told her about it when he arrived home. Rather, it shows the closeness of Macbeth and Lady Macbeths relationship. The gesture is important as it shows Macbeths urge to share the news with his wife, although the letter would probably only arrive a few hours before him. The closeness of their relationship is further shown by Macbeths entrance and their way of address, Macbeth addresses Lady Macbeth as my dearest love. They waste very little time on greetings, and Lady Macbeth dominates the conversation with her much longer speeches. She is very commanding towards Macbeth: you shall put / This nights great business into my dispatch, something that would have been very unlikely in Shakespearian times. This close relationship changes as Macbeth slides into evil. In Macbeths first major soliloquy he expresses the doubts he has about Duncans murder he realises that the only thing driving him is ambition. The Modern Caribbean - Literature EssayWhile having agonised over Duncans death, now he is so soon after the first murder he is ordering the murder of his best friend. He does not need Lady Macbeth anymore, and had acquired some finesse: now he is paying others to commit murders for him. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths relationship has suffered after Duncans murder and Lady Macbeth is very disconnected from what Macbeth is now doing she has to ask information from a servant, Is Banquo gone from court? , Macbeth has been avoiding her and does not share everything with her anymore, Why do you keep alone? , she needs to ask him, and then he does not give proper answers, keeping much to himself, including Banquos upcoming murder Be innocent of the knowledge. Macbeth takes very little notice of Lady Macbeth while talking about how he envies the dead Duncan and his speeches are full of omens of evil full of scorpions is my mind and black Hecates summons Macbeth is now fully connected with evil which has come to the fore-front of his character. Lady Macbeth has lost her status as a dominant speaker and Macbeths speeches lead the conversation, taking little or no notice of what his wife says. Also, Lady Macbeth is not the dearest partner in greatness anymore shown by Macbeth ordering her to come with him, prithee go with me. The next scene of importance is Macbeths seeing of Banquos ghost at the Banquet. This shows the immense sense of guilt, since the ghost is unseen to other guests and Macbeth has hallucinated. This is what finally drives Lady Macbeth over the edge her last waking and sane words are at the end of the scene. Macbeth is again influenced by the supernatural following a decision to see the witches again. He demands to know what will happen in the future and is unafraid of what may be revealed. He is willing to sacrifice everything for the knowledge, even natures order, castles topple on their warders heads, trees blown down. Macbeth takes each of the prophecies deeply to heart and considers each for a long time but yet Ill make assurance double sure. He interprets only the seeming literal sense of the prophecies, unaware that these are to trick him and are in fact saying how he will fall, not why he will survive. He takes confidence from the prophecies and they are what leads him to ordering the deaths of Macduffs family, a massacre he would have been unlikely to commit without something helping him to reach that conclusion. That murder is perhaps the most terrible since Macbeth is murdering not the person he wants removed, but people associated with Macduff. This deed I will do before purpose cool shows that this is spur of the moment action, highly likely to be influenced by what he had just seen. He wants it done immediately, since he seems afraid that if he thinks it through properly he will realise that this is not a good thing to do. Macbeth has abruptly become much more ruthless, but he is not a true tyrant because somewhere he knows that what he is doing is wrong. Lady Macbeth has gone insane from guilt, and is sleepwalking. All her desires have been inverted where she wanted darkness on the night of Duncans murder, she now has light by her constantly. Her sentences are very disconnected and she finally realises that she had sent herself to hell, Hell is murky. She feels guilty even for the murders Macbeth committed on his own because she set him on that path by convincing him to kill Duncan, Thane of Fife had a wife; where is she now? She is entirely eaten up in guilt and reliving all her experiences on the night of the murder over and over again, A soldier, and afeard? . She also gives a suggestion that Macbeth is also feeling extremely guilty and that he cannot sleep either, I tell you yet again Banquos buried; he cannot come out ons grave. Malcolms description of Macbeth is justified Macbeth has indeed become a dead butcher, murdering ruthlessly, having steadily descended into evil, from first Duncans murder, then Banquos, massacre of Macduffs family being the worst. He does retain some humanity, as he feels guilty until the end. However, the description of Lady Macbeth as a fiend-like queen is only justified if her actions at the beginning are taken into account. Later, she has no influence over Macbeths actions and wants him to stop his way of bloodshed, going insane and committing suicide at the end. However, it is her actions at the beginning to convince Macbeth to start murdering are what led to his fall and reign of evil and death.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The New Deal and Social Welfare Policy

Introduction The New Deal is a term that was popularized by Franklin Roosevelt. It had programs and measures that he came up with to cope with the problems experienced. These problems arose because of the great depression, which occurred in the United States in 1930.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The New Deal and Social Welfare Policy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The New Deal involved a number of reforms that were focused to deal with problems affecting the social, economic and government arenas. It was adopted by each state. It went a long way in helping the US as a country especially in pulling it out of this hard time. This is why it was considered as a major breakthrough in American history (Shlaes, 2007). The social welfare system in America changed greatly during the 1930s. Before the changes, the local governments for each region distributed relief. Consequently, this led to the rise of vari ous problems, as there were some scandals that arose. In 1933, the method was changed and the system was made much larger. The parties that were involved in this were the federal, state and local government. Bureaucracy dominated the scene because of these actions. The permanent social welfare system that was developed by the social security act contributed significantly to this process (Jansson, 2012). Social and economic conditions that led to the enactment of the New Deal programs The great depression This is one of the major problems that led to the need to adopt the New Deal. Various factors led to this. A key factor, which was a major cause of the great depression, was the stock market crash, which took place in the year 1929. There was a major loss of about 40 billion dollars within a period of only two years (Shlaes, 2007) Stockholders had lost too much money; despite attempts to recover some of the losses, the gap could still not be filled. By 1930, the great depression bec ame inevitable. After the stock market crash, banks started failing. Over nine thousand banks closed, due to the difficulties they were experiencing. The remaining banks were not insured, and people lost their savings when the banks crashed. The remaining banks in order to remain afloat restricted the issuing of loans hence making it hard for most businesses to sustain themselves (Shlaes, 2007).Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A major outcome of the great depression was unemployment. Due to the crash of the stock market and banks, many people lost their jobs. This was due to the rampant layoffs to maintain the businesses. Some businesses went bankrupt hence the workers from the failed businesses lost their jobs. The decline of the buying of goods also led to unemployment. People became unsure of the situation after the stock market crash and bank failures. They decided to keep their money. This, in turn, led to less production hence bringing down the need of a big workforce, which eventually led to a reduction in labor. Another blow to the economy was the policy to reduce the number of imports from Europe from entering the country. Though this policy served to protect American companies, it led to a decline in trade between the countries, and eventually resulted to economic restrictions as the countries also held back in supplying resources that were needed by the US (Jansson, 2012). Unemployment led to rural to urban migration as many people who were unemployed decided to move to urban centers to try their luck in getting jobs. Most people in the rural areas who are farmers experienced severe poverty. They had over exploited the soils and did not have the funds to invest in agriculture. This led to a large influx of people moving to the urban centers, and this, in turn, led to an increase in population in the areas. The situation was further worsened by the fact that foreigners were also entering the country in large numbers to get jobs. These migrations led to the overpopulation of the urban centers. Overpopulation led to overcrowding which resulted in a strain on the social amenities, as the services were not enough for the large population. This also resulted in an increase in the crime rate as certain people opted for unacceptable methods of getting income.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The New Deal and Social Welfare Policy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some companies took advantage of this situation and employed underage children at a very low wage to save money. Housing also became a problem, as the houses available could not hold the large population. This led to homelessness as many citizens could not afford homes and the rent was unaffordable to them. There was a big problem when it came to social welfare services. Non-profit organizatio ns that volunteered and the local government did the provision of social welfare services. This minimized welfare, and in most cases, it was discriminatory. African Americans were given almost no welfare assistance benefits (Barrow, 2007). The system at this time was also corrupt as most welfare money was misused and unaccounted for (Jansson, 2012). New Deal Programs There was the Emergency Banking Act. This was established immediately after President Roosevelt took over presidency. FDR issued an order for the closure of all the banks in the country. Congress had passed the emergency Banking Act that authorized the government to assess all the banks in terms of their sustainability. This policy was meant to ensure that all the banks that were operating were legit and well managed. During the great depression, many banks had closed due to poor management and this greatly affected the economy and citizens (Jansson, 2012). The implementation of this program was to ensure that such a sc enario would not happen again. The formation of the FDIC – the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation – was implemented to insure bank credits worth 5000 US dollars. This greatly boosted the banking sector. It reassured the citizens that banks were safe and in case of any complications, compensation was guaranteed. Good banks were then re-allowed to reopen and in a very limited time span, the citizens re-deposited their money in the banks (Venn, 1998).Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Social Security Act was another program in the New Deal package. It aimed to give welfare services and benefits to those who needed assistance. It was established after a careful scrutiny of the problems the citizens were experiencing and how the government would chip in to support them. It included the provision of pensions after a citizen was no longer employed. This was to ensure that the retiree could still be getting some money to help them through their problems. It also included benefits for survivors of industrial accidents; there was unemployment insurance, aid for mothers who were dependant and their siblings. It also catered for the physically challenged (Jansson, 2012). This Act assured the citizens of peace of mind in case these unexpected and unavoidable circumstances happened. This policy was very effective as it responded to the problems of the disadvantaged groups in the society and in turn offered millions of citizens’ security. This Act has had a huge i mpact on the current welfare policy as the current policy has adopted most of this principles and ideologies into its system. Most if not all of these policies may be currently adopted into the current welfare policy. The only difference is that they have been re-modified to fit the current conditions. A number of organizations were also set up to help in the implementation of the New Deal. An example of one of the organizations is the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC). HOLC was set up to deal with the issue of home ownership. Many people were experiencing this common problem because of unemployment. This made many people appear unable to afford homes and eventually led them to lose their jobs. This organization was formed to prevent specifically people from losing their jobs. It did this by refinancing mortgages of average paid citizens who owned homes. This was helpful in the regulation of home repossessions (Jansson, 2012). Another organization that was set up was the Federal E mergency Relief Administration (FERA). Harry Hopkins managed this. The agency funded depleting relief agencies. It gave out five million dollars in two hours. This program also funded public work programs. The main reason this program was set up was so that it could help in sustaining the other relief programs that were experiencing financial difficulties. Getting finances was a major problem during this time as not many groups were willing to fund these agencies. Relief agencies aided a lot as they helped the people significantly, especially the needy. These organizations have had a huge impact on the current social welfare policy. From their establishment the government still gives home financial aid to the citizens who are not in a position to finance their home mortgages, it also funds banks and in turn influences the low cost of mortgages. The government also makes an initiative to fund relief agencies when they experience problems. Conclusion The New Deal marked a significant turning point in American history. Its adaptation resulted in the pull of America from a hard financial time. Before the implementation and enactment of the New Deal, the country was going through a number of social and economic conditions that were not favorable to the citizens. These conditions were the great depression, unemployment, rural to urban migration, overcrowding, crime etc. The main reason that led to the need for reforms through the New Deal was the great depression. This caused many problems in the country (Venn, 1998). Its implementation was dependent on a number of programs. These programs were focused on key aspects that were affecting the people. Three important programs that were incorporated in this plan was the Emergency Banking Act, which was aided by the formation of the Federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC). The second program was the Social Security Act. Some organizations were also set up as programs this included the Home Owners Loan Corporation an d Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). These programs have also influenced and affected the current social welfare policy. The current social welfare policy has been created based on the ideologies and aspects dwelt on at that time. The basic ideas remain the same, but the only difference is in the addition of more policies and the restructure of the old ones, to fit the current social and economic conditions. References Barrow, F.H. (2007). Forrester Blanchard Washington and his advocacy for African Americans in the new deal. Social Work, 25(4), 201-208 Jansson, B. S. (2012). The reluctant welfare state. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Shlaes, A. (2007). The forgotten man: A new history of the great depression. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Venn, F. (1998)The new deal, Edinburgh, England: Edinburgh University Press. 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